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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 28, 2019
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from            to            
Commission file number 1-1183
http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=13368389&doc=18
PepsiCo, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter) 
North Carolina
 
13-1584302
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

700 Anderson Hill Road, Purchase, New York 10577
(Address of Principal Executive Offices and Zip Code)

914-253-2000
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934: 
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbols
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value 1-2/3 cents per share
 
PEP
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
2.500% Senior Notes Due 2022
 
PEP22a
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
1.750% Senior Notes Due 2021
 
PEP21a
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
2.625% Senior Notes Due 2026
 
PEP26
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
0.875% Senior Notes Due 2028
 
PEP28
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
0.750% Senior Notes Due 2027
 
PEP27
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
1.125% Senior Notes Due 2031
 
PEP31
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
0.875% Senior Notes Due 2039
 
PEP39
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x  No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨  No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x  No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x  No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.  
Large accelerated filer
x
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   No x 
The aggregate market value of PepsiCo, Inc. Common Stock held by nonaffiliates of PepsiCo, Inc. (assuming for these purposes, but without conceding, that all executive officers and directors of PepsiCo, Inc. are affiliates of PepsiCo, Inc.) as of June 14, 2019, the last day of business of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $185.4 billion (based on the closing sale price of PepsiCo, Inc.’s Common Stock on that date as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market).
The number of shares of PepsiCo, Inc. Common Stock outstanding as of February 6, 2020 was 1,389,544,618.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the Proxy Statement relating to PepsiCo, Inc.’s 2020 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.



PepsiCo, Inc.
Form 10-K Annual Report
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 28, 2019
Table of Contents
 
PART I
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
Item 15.
Item 16.



1


Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains statements reflecting our views about our future performance that constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (Reform Act). Statements that constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Reform Act are generally identified through the inclusion of words such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “drive,” “estimate,” “expect,” “expressed confidence,” “forecast,” “future,” “goal,” “guidance,” “intend,” “may,” “objective,” “outlook,” “plan,” “position,” “potential,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “strategy,” “target,” “will” or similar statements or variations of such words and other similar expressions. All statements addressing our future operating performance, and statements addressing events and developments that we expect or anticipate will occur in the future, are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Reform Act. These forward-looking statements are based on currently available information, operating plans and projections about future events and trends. They inherently involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those predicted in any such forward-looking statement. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those described in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Our Business – Our Business Risks.” Investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date they are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. The discussion of risks in this report is by no means all-inclusive but is designed to highlight what we believe are important factors to consider when evaluating our future performance.
PART I
Item 1. Business.
When used in this report, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” “PepsiCo” and the “Company” mean PepsiCo, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, collectively. Certain terms used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are defined in the Glossary included in Item 7. of this report.
Company Overview
We were incorporated in Delaware in 1919 and reincorporated in North Carolina in 1986. We are a leading global food and beverage company with a complementary portfolio of brands, including Frito-Lay, Gatorade, Pepsi-Cola, Quaker and Tropicana. Through our operations, authorized bottlers, contract manufacturers and other third parties, we make, market, distribute and sell a wide variety of convenient beverages, foods and snacks, serving customers and consumers in more than 200 countries and territories.
Our Operations
Changes to Organizational Structure
During the fourth quarter of 2019, we realigned our Europe Sub-Saharan Africa (ESSA) and Asia, Middle East and North Africa (AMENA) reportable segments to be consistent with a recent strategic realignment of our organizational structure and how our Chief Executive Officer assesses the performance of, and allocates resources to, our reportable segments. As a result, our beverage, food and snack businesses in North Africa, the Middle East and South Asia that were part of our former AMENA segment and our businesses in Sub-Saharan Africa that were part of our former ESSA segment are now reported together as our Africa, Middle East and South Asia (AMESA) segment. The remaining beverage, food and snack businesses that were part of our former AMENA segment are now reported together as our Asia Pacific, Australia and New Zealand and China region (APAC) segment and our beverage, food and snack businesses in Europe are now reported as our Europe segment.
These changes did not impact our Frito-Lay North America (FLNA), Quaker Foods North America (QFNA),


2


PepsiCo Beverages North America (PBNA), formerly named North America Beverages, or Latin America (LatAm) reportable segments or our consolidated financial results.
Our historical segment reporting presented in this report has been retrospectively revised to reflect the new organizational structure.
We are organized into seven reportable segments (also referred to as divisions), as follows:
1)
FLNA, which includes our branded food and snack businesses in the United States and Canada;
2)
QFNA, which includes our cereal, rice, pasta and other branded food businesses in the United States and Canada;
3)
PBNA, which includes our beverage businesses in the United States and Canada;
4)
LatAm, which includes all of our beverage, food and snack businesses in Latin America;
5)
Europe, which includes all of our beverage, food and snack businesses in Europe;
6)
AMESA, which includes all of our beverage, food and snack businesses in Africa, the Middle East and South Asia; and
7)
APAC, which includes all of our beverage, food and snack businesses in Asia Pacific, Australia and New Zealand, and China region.
Frito-Lay North America
Either independently or in conjunction with third parties, FLNA makes, markets, distributes and sells branded snack foods. These foods include branded dips, Cheetos cheese-flavored snacks, Doritos tortilla chips, Fritos corn chips, Lay’s potato chips, Ruffles potato chips and Tostitos tortilla chips. FLNA’s branded products are sold to independent distributors and retailers. In addition, FLNA’s joint venture with Strauss Group makes, markets, distributes and sells Sabra refrigerated dips and spreads.
Quaker Foods North America
Either independently or in conjunction with third parties, QFNA makes, markets, distributes and sells cereals, rice, pasta and other branded products. QFNA’s products include Aunt Jemima mixes and syrups, Cap’n Crunch cereal, Life cereal, Pasta Roni, Quaker Chewy granola bars, Quaker grits, Quaker oatmeal, Quaker rice cakes, Quaker simply granola and Rice-A-Roni side dishes. These branded products are sold to independent distributors and retailers.
PepsiCo Beverages North America
Either independently or in conjunction with third parties, PBNA makes, markets and sells beverage concentrates, fountain syrups and finished goods under various beverage brands including Aquafina, Diet Mountain Dew, Diet Pepsi, Gatorade, Mountain Dew, Pepsi, Propel, Sierra Mist and Tropicana. PBNA also, either independently or in conjunction with third parties, makes, markets, distributes and sells ready-to-drink tea and coffee products through joint ventures with Unilever (under the Lipton brand name) and Starbucks, respectively. Further, PBNA manufactures and distributes certain brands licensed from Keurig Dr Pepper Inc., including Crush, Dr Pepper and Schweppes, and certain juice brands licensed from Dole Food Company, Inc. (Dole) and Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc. (Ocean Spray). PBNA operates its own bottling plants and distribution facilities and sells branded finished goods directly to independent distributors and retailers. PBNA also sells concentrate and finished goods for our brands to authorized and independent bottlers, who in turn sell our branded finished goods to independent distributors and retailers in certain markets.
Latin America
Either independently or in conjunction with third parties, LatAm makes, markets, distributes and sells a number of snack food brands including Cheetos, Doritos, Emperador, Lay’s, Marias Gamesa, Rosquinhas Mabel, Ruffles, Sabritas, Saladitas and Tostitos, as well as many Quaker-branded cereals and snacks. LatAm


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also, either independently or in conjunction with third parties, makes, markets, distributes and sells beverage concentrates, fountain syrups and finished goods under various beverage brands including 7UP, Gatorade, H2oh!, Manzanita Sol, Mirinda, Pepsi, Pepsi Black, San Carlos and Toddy. These branded products are sold to authorized bottlers, independent distributors and retailers. LatAm also, either independently or in conjunction with third parties, makes, markets, distributes and sells ready-to-drink tea products through an international joint venture with Unilever (under the Lipton brand name).
Europe
Either independently or in conjunction with third parties, Europe makes, markets, distributes and sells a number of leading snack food brands including Cheetos, Chipita, Doritos, Lay’s, Ruffles and Walkers, as well as many Quaker-branded cereals and snacks, through consolidated businesses, as well as through noncontrolled affiliates. Europe also, either independently or in conjunction with third parties, makes, markets, distributes and sells beverage concentrates, fountain syrups and finished goods under various beverage brands including 7UP, Diet Pepsi, Mirinda, Pepsi, Pepsi Max and Tropicana. These branded products are sold to authorized bottlers, independent distributors and retailers. In certain markets, however, Europe operates its own bottling plants and distribution facilities. Europe also, either independently or in conjunction with third parties, makes, markets, distributes and sells ready-to-drink tea products through an international joint venture with Unilever (under the Lipton brand name). In addition, Europe makes, markets, distributes and sells a number of leading dairy products including Agusha, Chudo and Domik v Derevne. Further, as part of its beverage business, Europe manufactures and distributes sparkling water makers through SodaStream International Ltd. (SodaStream). See Note 14 to our consolidated financial statements for further information about our acquisition of SodaStream.
Africa, Middle East and South Asia
Either independently or in conjunction with third parties, AMESA makes, markets, distributes and sells a number of leading snack food brands including Cheetos, Chipsy, Doritos, Kurkure and Lay’s, as well as many Quaker branded cereals and snacks, through consolidated businesses, as well as through noncontrolled affiliates. AMESA also makes, markets, distributes and sells beverage concentrates, fountain syrups and finished goods under various beverage brands including 7UP, Aquafina, Mirinda, Mountain Dew and Pepsi. These branded products are sold to authorized bottlers, independent distributors and retailers. In certain markets, however, AMESA operates its own bottling plants and distribution facilities. AMESA also, either independently or in conjunction with third parties, makes, markets, distributes and sells ready-to-drink tea products through an international joint venture with Unilever (under the Lipton brand name). In 2019, we entered into an agreement to acquire Pioneer Food Group Ltd. (Pioneer Foods), a food and beverage company in South Africa with exports to countries across the globe. The transaction is subject to certain regulatory approvals and other customary conditions and is expected to close in the first half of 2020. See Note 14 to our consolidated financial statements for further information about our acquisition of Pioneer Foods.
Asia Pacific, Australia and New Zealand and China Region
Either independently or in conjunction with third parties, APAC makes, markets, distributes and sells a number of leading snack food brands including Cheetos, Doritos, Lay’s and Smith’s, as well as many Quaker branded cereals and snacks, through consolidated businesses, as well as through noncontrolled affiliates. APAC also makes, markets, distributes and sells beverage concentrates, fountain syrups and finished goods under various beverage brands including 7UP, Aquafina, Mirinda, Mountain Dew and Pepsi. These branded products are sold to authorized bottlers, independent distributors and retailers. APAC also, either independently or in conjunction with third parties, makes, markets, distributes and sells ready-to-drink tea products through an international joint venture with Unilever (under the Lipton brand name). Further, APAC licenses the Tropicana brand for use in China on co-branded juice products in connection with a strategic alliance with Tingyi (Cayman Islands) Holding Corp. (Tingyi).


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Our Distribution Network
Our products are primarily brought to market through direct-store-delivery (DSD), customer warehouse and distributor networks and are also sold directly to consumers through e-commerce platforms and retailers. The distribution system used depends on customer needs, product characteristics and local trade practices.
Direct-Store-Delivery
We, our independent bottlers and our distributors operate DSD systems that deliver beverages, foods and snacks directly to retail stores where the products are merchandised by our employees or our independent bottlers. DSD enables us to merchandise with maximum visibility and appeal. DSD is especially well-suited to products that are restocked often and respond to in-store promotion and merchandising.
Customer Warehouse
Some of our products are delivered from our manufacturing plants and warehouses to customer warehouses. These less costly systems generally work best for products that are less fragile and perishable, and have lower turnover.
Distributor Networks
We distribute many of our products through third-party distributors. Third-party distributors are particularly effective when greater distribution reach can be achieved by including a wide range of products on the delivery vehicles. For example, our foodservice and vending business distributes beverages, foods and snacks to restaurants, businesses, schools and stadiums through third-party foodservice and vending distributors and operators.
E-commerce
Our products are also available and sold directly to consumers on a growing number of company-owned and third-party e-commerce websites and mobile commerce applications.
Ingredients and Other Supplies
The principal ingredients we use in our beverage, food and snack products are apple, orange and pineapple juice and other juice concentrates, aspartame, corn, corn sweeteners, flavorings, flour, grapefruit, oranges and other fruits, oats, potatoes, raw milk, rice, seasonings, sucralose, sugar, vegetable and essential oils, and wheat. We also use water in the manufacturing of our products. Our key packaging materials include plastic resins, including polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene resins used for plastic beverage bottles and film packaging used for snack foods, aluminum, glass, closures, cardboard and paperboard cartons. In addition, we continue to integrate recyclability into our product development process and support the increased use of recycled content, including recycled PET, in our packaging. Fuel, electricity and natural gas are also important commodities for our businesses due to their use in our and our business partners’ facilities and the vehicles delivering our products. We employ specialists to secure adequate supplies of many of these items and have not experienced any significant continuous shortages that would prevent us from meeting our requirements. Many of these ingredients, raw materials and commodities are purchased in the open market. The prices we pay for such items are subject to fluctuation, and we manage this risk through the use of fixed-price contracts and purchase orders, pricing agreements and derivative instruments, including swaps and futures. In addition, risk to our supply of certain raw materials is mitigated through purchases from multiple geographies and suppliers. When prices increase, we may or may not pass on such increases to our customers. In addition, we continue to make investments to improve the sustainability and resources of our agricultural supply chain, including the development of our initiative to advance sustainable farming practices by our suppliers and expanding it further globally. See Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements for further information on how we manage our exposure to commodity prices.


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Our Brands and Intellectual Property Rights
We own numerous valuable trademarks which are essential to our worldwide businesses, including 1893, Agusha, Amp Energy, Aquafina, Aquafina Flavorsplash, Arto Lifewater, Aunt Jemima, Bare, Bolt24, bubly, Cap’n Crunch, Cheetos, Chester’s, Chipita, Chipsy, Chokis, Chudo, Cracker Jack, Crunchy, Diet Mountain Dew, Diet Mug, Diet Pepsi, Diet 7UP (outside the United States), Domik v Derevne, Doritos, Duyvis, Elma Chips, Emperador, Evolve, Frito-Lay, Fritos, Fruktovy Sad, G2, Gamesa, Gatorade, Grandma’s, H2oh!, Health Warrior, Imunele, Izze, J-7 Tonus, Kas, KeVita, Kurkure, Lay’s, Life, Lifewtr, Lubimy, Manzanita Sol, Marias Gamesa, Matutano, Mirinda, Miss Vickie’s, Mother’s, Mountain Dew, Mountain Dew Amp Game Fuel, Mountain Dew Code Red, Mountain Dew Ice, Mountain Dew Kickstart, Mountain Dew Zero Sugar, Mug, Munchies, Muscle Milk, Naked, Near East, Off the Eaten Path, O.N.E., Paso de los Toros, Pasta Roni, Pepsi, Pepsi Black, Pepsi Max, Pepsi Zero Sugar, Propel, Quaker, Quaker Chewy, Rice-A-Roni, Rold Gold, Rosquinhas Mabel, Ruffles, Sabritas, Sakata, Saladitas, San Carlos, Sandora, Santitas, 7UP (outside the United States), 7UP Free (outside the United States), Sierra Mist, Sierra Mist Zero Sugar, Simba, Smartfood, Smith’s, Snack a Jacks, SoBe, SodaStream, Sonric’s, Stacy’s, Sting, Stubborn Soda, SunChips, Toddy, Toddynho, Tostitos, Trop 50, Tropicana, Tropicana Pure Premium, Tropicana Twister, V Water, Vesely Molochnik, Walkers and Ya. We also hold long-term licenses to use valuable trademarks in connection with our products in certain markets, including Dole and Ocean Spray. We also distribute Rockstar Energy drinks and various Keurig Dr Pepper Inc. brands, including Dr Pepper in certain markets, Crush and Schweppes. Joint ventures in which we have an ownership interest either own or have the right to use certain trademarks, such as Lipton, Sabra and Starbucks. Trademarks remain valid so long as they are used properly for identification purposes, and we emphasize correct use of our trademarks. We have authorized, through licensing arrangements, the use of many of our trademarks in such contexts as snack food joint ventures and beverage bottling appointments. In addition, we license the use of our trademarks on merchandise that is sold at retail, which enhances brand awareness.
We either own or have licenses to use a number of patents which relate to certain of our products, their packaging, the processes for their production and the design and operation of various equipment used in our businesses. Some of these patents are licensed to others.
Seasonality
Our businesses are affected by seasonal variations. Our beverage, food and snack sales are generally highest in the third quarter due to seasonal and holiday-related patterns, and generally lowest in the first quarter. However, taken as a whole, seasonality has not had a material impact on our consolidated financial results.
Our Customers
Our customers include wholesale and other distributors, foodservice customers, grocery stores, drug stores, convenience stores, discount/dollar stores, mass merchandisers, membership stores, hard discounters, e-commerce retailers and authorized independent bottlers, among others. We normally grant our independent bottlers exclusive contracts to sell and manufacture certain beverage products bearing our trademarks within a specific geographic area. These arrangements provide us with the right to charge our independent bottlers for concentrate, finished goods and Aquafina royalties and specify the manufacturing process required for product quality. We also grant distribution rights to our independent bottlers for certain beverage products bearing our trademarks for specified geographic areas.
We rely on and provide financial incentives to our customers to assist in the distribution and promotion of our products to the consumer. For our independent distributors and retailers, these incentives include volume-based rebates, product placement fees, promotions and displays. For our independent bottlers, these incentives are referred to as bottler funding and are negotiated annually with each bottler to support a variety of trade and consumer programs, such as consumer incentives, advertising support, new product support, and vending and cooler equipment placement. Consumer incentives include pricing discounts and promotions, and other


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promotional offers. Advertising support is directed at advertising programs and supporting independent bottler media. New product support includes targeted consumer and retailer incentives and direct marketplace support, such as point-of-purchase materials, product placement fees, media and advertising. Vending and cooler equipment placement programs support the acquisition and placement of vending machines and cooler equipment. The nature and type of programs vary annually.
Changes to the retail landscape, including increased consolidation of retail ownership, the rapid growth of sales through e-commerce websites and mobile commerce applications, including through subscription services and other direct-to-consumer businesses, the integration of physical and digital operations among retailers, as well as the growth in hard discounters, and the current economic environment continue to increase the importance of major customers. In 2019, sales to Walmart Inc. (Walmart) and its affiliates, including Sam’s Club (Sam’s), represented approximately 13% of our consolidated net revenue, with sales reported across all of our divisions. Our top five retail customers represented approximately 34% of our 2019 net revenue in North America, with Walmart and its affiliates (including Sam’s) representing approximately 19%. These percentages include concentrate sales to our independent bottlers, which were used in finished goods sold by them to these retailers.
See “Off-Balance-Sheet Arrangements” in “Our Financial Results – Our Liquidity and Capital Resources” in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for more information on our independent bottlers.
Our Competition
Our beverage, food and snack products are in highly competitive categories and markets and compete against products of international beverage, food and snack companies that, like us, operate in multiple geographies, as well as regional, local and private label manufacturers and economy brands and other competitors, including smaller companies developing and selling micro brands directly to consumers through e-commerce platforms or through retailers focused on locally-sourced products. In many countries in which our products are sold, including the United States, The Coca-Cola Company is our primary beverage competitor. Other beverage, food and snack competitors include, but are not limited to, Campbell Soup Company, Conagra Brands, Inc., Kellogg Company, Keurig Dr Pepper Inc., The Kraft Heinz Company, Link Snacks, Inc., Mondelēz International, Inc., Monster Beverage Corporation, Nestlé S.A. and Red Bull GmbH.
Many of our food and snack products hold significant leadership positions in the food and snack industry in the United States and worldwide. In 2019, we and The Coca-Cola Company represented approximately 22% and 20%, respectively, of the U.S. liquid refreshment beverage category by estimated retail sales in measured channels, according to Information Resources, Inc. However, The Coca-Cola Company has significant carbonated soft drink (CSD) share advantage in many markets outside the United States.
Our beverage, food and snack products compete primarily on the basis of brand recognition and loyalty, taste, price, value, quality, product variety, innovation, distribution, advertising, marketing and promotional activity (including digital), packaging, convenience, service and the ability to anticipate and effectively respond to consumer preferences and trends, including increased consumer focus on health and wellness and the continued acceleration of e-commerce and other methods of distributing and purchasing products. Success in this competitive environment is dependent on effective promotion of existing products, effective introduction of new products and reformulations of existing products, increased efficiency in production techniques, effective incorporation of technology and digital tools across all areas of our business, the effectiveness of our advertising campaigns, marketing programs, product packaging and pricing, new vending and dispensing equipment and brand and trademark development and protection. We believe that the strength of our brands, innovation and marketing, coupled with the quality of our products and flexibility of our distribution network, allows us to compete effectively.


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Research and Development
We engage in a variety of research and development activities and invest in innovation globally with the goal of meeting changing consumer demands and preferences and accelerating sustainable growth. These activities principally involve: development of new ingredients, flavors and products; reformulation and improvement in the quality and appeal of existing products; improvement and modernization of manufacturing processes, including cost reduction; improvements in product quality, safety and integrity; development of, and improvements in, marketing and merchandising equipment, dispensing equipment, packaging technology (including investments in recycling-focused technologies), package design (including development of sustainable, bio-based packaging) and portion sizes; efforts focused on identifying opportunities to transform, grow and broaden our product portfolio, including by developing products with improved nutrition profiles that reduce added sugars, sodium or saturated fat, including through the use of natural flavors, sweetener alternatives and flavor modifiers and innovation in existing sweeteners and flavoring, further expanding our beyond the bottle portfolio, including further growing our SodaStream business, and offering more products with positive nutrition including whole grains, fruits and vegetables, dairy, protein and hydration; investments in building our capabilities to support our global e-commerce business; investments in technology and digitalization, including data analytics to enhance our consumer insights; and efforts focused on reducing our impact on the environment, including improvements in energy efficiency, water use in our operations and our agricultural practices. Our research centers are located around the world, including Brazil, China, India, Ireland, Mexico, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States, and leverage nutrition science, food science, engineering and consumer insights to meet our strategy to continue to innovate in nutritious and convenient beverages, foods and snacks.
In 2019, we continued to make investments to further digitalize our business including: continuing to strengthen our omnichannel capabilities, particularly in e-commerce; and leveraging technology and data analytics to capture and analyze consumer level data to increasingly structure personalized communications with consumers and satisfy demand at the store level. In addition, we continued to refine our beverage, food and snack portfolio to meet changing consumer demands by reducing added sugars in many of our beverages and sodium and saturated fat in many of our foods and snacks, and by developing a broader portfolio of product choices, including: continuing to expand our beverage options that contain no high-fructose corn syrup and that are made with natural flavors; expanding our beyond the bottle offerings by offering bubly in fountain dispensing; developing 100% recycled PET packaging for LIFEWTR and aluminum can packaging for Aquafina; expanding our state of the art food and beverage healthy vending initiative to increase the availability of nutritious and convenient beverages, foods and snacks; further expanding our portfolio, through a combination of brand extensions, product reformulations, new product innovations and acquisitions to offer products with more of the nutritious ingredients and hydration our consumers are looking for, such as Quaker (grains), Tropicana (juices, lemonades, fruit and vegetable drinks), Gatorade (sports nutrition for athletes), Naked Juice (cold-pressed juices and smoothies), KeVita (probiotics, tonics and fermented teas), Bare (baked apple chips and other baked fruits and vegetables), Health Warrior (nutrition bars), Evolve (plant-based protein products) and Muscle Milk (protein shakes); further expanding our whole grain products globally; and further expanding our portfolio in growing categories, such as dairy, hummus and other refrigerated dips, and baked grain snacks. In addition, we continued to make investments to reduce our impact on the environment, including: efforts to conserve raw materials and energy, such as by working to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across our global businesses, by helping to protect and conserve global water supply especially in high-water-risk locations (including replenishing watersheds that source our operations in high-water-risk locations and promoting the efficient use of water in our agricultural supply chain), and by incorporating improvements in the sustainability and resources of our agricultural supply chain into our operations; efforts to reduce waste generated by our operations and disposed of in landfills; efforts to increase energy efficiency, including the increased use of renewable energy and resources; efforts to support sustainable agriculture by expanding best practices with our growers and suppliers, including


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through the use of data and technology to optimize yields and efficiency and promote responsible use of pesticides; and efforts to create a circular future for packaging, including the increased use of recycled content and alternative packaging, support for increased packaging recovery and recycling rates globally, optimization of packaging technology and design to minimize the amount of plastic in our packaging and to make our packaging increasingly recoverable or recyclable with lower environmental impact, and our continued investments in developing compostable and biodegradable packaging.
Regulatory Matters
The conduct of our businesses, including the production, storage, distribution, sale, display, advertising, marketing, labeling, content, quality, safety, transportation, packaging, disposal, recycling and use of our products, as well as our employment and occupational health and safety practices and protection of personal information, are subject to various laws and regulations administered by federal, state and local governmental agencies in the United States, as well as to laws and regulations administered by government entities and agencies in the more than 200 other countries and territories in which our products are made, manufactured, distributed or sold. It is our policy to abide by the laws and regulations around the world that apply to our businesses.
The U.S. laws and regulations that we are subject to include: the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and various state laws governing food safety; the Food Safety Modernization Act; the Occupational Safety and Health Act; various federal, state and local environmental protection laws, as discussed below; the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Act; the Federal Trade Commission Act; the Lanham Act; various federal and state laws and regulations governing competition and trade practices; various federal and state laws and regulations governing our employment practices, including those related to equal employment opportunity, such as the Equal Employment Opportunity Act and the National Labor Relations Act and those related to overtime compensation, such as the Fair Labor Standards Act; data privacy and personal data protection laws and regulations, including the California Privacy Act of 2018; customs and foreign trade laws and regulations, including laws regarding the import or export of our products or ingredients used in our products and tariffs; laws regulating the sale of certain of our products in schools; laws regulating our supply chain, including the 2010 California Transparency in Supply Chains Act and laws relating to the payment of taxes. We are also required to comply with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act. We are also subject to various state and local statutes and regulations, including state consumer protection laws such as Proposition 65 in California, which requires that a specific warning appear on any product that contains a substance listed by the State of California as having been found to cause cancer or birth defects, unless the amount of such substance in the product is below a safe harbor level.
We are subject to numerous similar and other laws and regulations outside the United States, including but not limited to laws and regulations governing food safety, international trade and tariffs, supply chain, including the U.K. Modern Slavery Act, occupational health and safety, competition, anti-corruption and data privacy, including the European Union General Data Protection Regulation. In many jurisdictions, compliance with competition laws is of special importance to us due to our competitive position in those jurisdictions, as is compliance with anti-corruption laws, including the U.K. Bribery Act. We rely on legal and operational compliance programs, as well as in-house and outside counsel and other experts, to guide our businesses in complying with the laws and regulations around the world that apply to our businesses.
In addition, certain jurisdictions have either imposed, or are considering imposing, new or increased taxes on the manufacture, distribution or sale of our products, ingredients or substances contained in, or attributes of, our products or commodities used in the production of our products. These taxes vary in scope and form: some apply to all beverages, including non-caloric beverages, while others apply only to beverages with a caloric sweetener (e.g., sugar). Similarly, some measures apply a single tax rate per ounce/liter on beverages containing over a certain level of added sugar (or other sweetener) while others apply a graduated tax rate depending upon the amount of added sugar (or other sweetener) in the beverage and some apply a flat tax


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rate on beverages containing a particular substance or ingredient, regardless of the level of such substance or ingredient.
In addition, certain jurisdictions have either imposed, or are considering imposing, product labeling or warning requirements or other limitations on the marketing or sale of certain of our products as a result of ingredients or substances contained in such products or the audience to whom products are marketed. These types of provisions have required that we provide a label that highlights perceived concerns about a product or warns consumers to avoid consumption of certain ingredients or substances present in our products. It is possible that similar or more restrictive requirements may be proposed or enacted in the future.
In addition, certain jurisdictions have either imposed or are considering imposing regulations designed to increase recycling rates or encourage waste reduction. These regulations vary in scope and form from deposit return systems designed to incentivize the return of beverage containers, to extended producer responsibility policies and even bans on the use of some plastic beverage bottles and other single-use plastics. It is possible that similar or more restrictive requirements may be proposed or enacted in the future.
We are also subject to national and local environmental laws in the United States and in foreign countries in which we do business, including laws related to water consumption and treatment, wastewater discharge and air emissions. In the United States, our facilities must comply with the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and other federal and state laws regarding handling, storage, release and disposal of wastes generated onsite and sent to third-party owned and operated offsite licensed facilities and our facilities outside the United States must comply with similar laws and regulations. In addition, continuing concern over climate change may result in new or increased legal and regulatory requirements (in or outside of the United States) to reduce or mitigate the potential effects of greenhouse gases, or to limit or impose additional costs on commercial water use due to local water scarcity concerns. Our policy is to abide by all applicable environmental laws and regulations, and we have internal programs in place with respect to our global environmental compliance. We have made, and plan to continue making, necessary expenditures for compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations. While these expenditures have not had a material impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations to date, changes in environmental compliance requirements, and any expenditures necessary to comply with such requirements, could adversely affect our financial performance. In addition, we and our subsidiaries are subject to environmental remediation obligations arising in the normal course of business, as well as remediation and related indemnification obligations in connection with certain historical activities and contractual obligations, including those of businesses acquired by us or our subsidiaries. While these environmental remediation and indemnification obligations cannot be predicted with certainty, such obligations have not had, and are not expected to have, a material impact on our capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position.
In addition to the discussion in this section, see also “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
Employees
As of December 28, 2019, we and our consolidated subsidiaries employed approximately 267,000 people worldwide, including approximately 116,000 people within the United States. In certain countries, our employment levels are subject to seasonal variations. We or our subsidiaries are party to numerous collective bargaining agreements. We expect that we will be able to renegotiate these collective bargaining agreements on satisfactory terms when they expire. We believe that relations with our employees are generally good.
Available Information
We are required to file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov.


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Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and amendments to those documents filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act), are also available free of charge on our Internet site at http://www.pepsico.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC.
Investors should note that we currently announce material information to our investors and others using filings with the SEC, press releases, public conference calls, webcasts or our corporate website (www.pepsico.com), including news and announcements regarding our financial performance, key personnel, our brands and our business strategy. Information that we post on our corporate website could be deemed material to investors. We encourage investors, the media, our customers, consumers, business partners and others interested in us to review the information we post on these channels. We may from time to time update the list of channels we will use to communicate information that could be deemed material and will post information about any such change on www.pepsico.com. The information on our website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part hereof or incorporated into this or any of our other filings with the SEC.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
You should carefully consider the risks described below in addition to the other information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations section and the consolidated financial statements and related notes. These risks, some of which have occurred and any of which may occur in the future, can have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or the price of our publicly traded securities. The risks described below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently deem to be immaterial, may occur or become material in the future and adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations or the price of our publicly traded securities. Therefore, historical operating results, financial and business performance, events and trends are often not a reliable indicator of future operating results, financial and business performance, events or trends.
Future demand for our products may be adversely affected by changes in consumer preferences or any inability on our part to innovate, market or distribute our products effectively, and any significant reduction in demand could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We are a global food and beverage company operating in highly competitive categories and markets. To generate revenues and profits, we rely on continued demand for our products and therefore must understand our customers and consumers and sell products that appeal to them in the sales channel in which they prefer to shop or browse for such products. In general, changes in consumption in our product categories or consumer demographics can result in reduced demand for our products. Demand for our products depends in part on our ability to anticipate and effectively respond to shifts in consumer trends and preferences, including increased demand for products that meet the needs of consumers who are concerned with: health and wellness (including products that have less added sugars, sodium and saturated fat); convenience (including responding to changes in in-home and on-the-go consumption patterns and methods of distribution of our products to customers and consumers, including through e-commerce and hard discounters); or the location of origin or source of ingredients and products (including the environmental impact related to production and packaging of our products).
Consumer preferences continuously evolve, due to a variety of factors, including: changes in consumer demographics, including the aging of the general population and the emergence of the millennial and younger generations who have differing spending, consumption and purchasing habits; consumer concerns or perceptions regarding the nutrition profile of products, including the presence of added sugar, sodium and saturated fat in certain of our products; growing demand for organic, locally or sustainably sourced ingredients, or consumer concerns or perceptions (whether or not valid) regarding the health effects of ingredients or


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substances present in certain of our products, such as 4-MeI, acrylamide, artificial flavors and colors, artificial sweeteners, aspartame, caffeine, furfuryl alcohol, high-fructose corn syrup, partially hydrolyzed oils, saturated fat, sodium, sugar, trans fats or other product ingredients, substances or attributes, including genetically engineered ingredients; taxes or other restrictions, including labeling requirements, imposed on our products; consumer concerns or perceptions regarding packaging materials, including single-use and other plastic packaging, and their environmental impact; changes in package or portion size; changes in social trends that impact travel, vacation or leisure activity patterns; changes in weather patterns or seasonal consumption cycles; the continued acceleration of e-commerce and other methods of purchasing products; negative publicity (whether or not valid) resulting from regulatory actions, litigation against us or other companies in our industry or negative or inaccurate posts or comments in the media, including social media, about us, our employees, our products or advertising campaigns and marketing programs; perception of our employees, agents, customers, suppliers, bottlers, contract manufacturers, distributors, joint venture partners or other third parties or our respective social media posts, business practices or other information disseminated by or regarding them or us; product boycotts; or a downturn in economic conditions. These factors have in the past and could in the future reduce consumers’ willingness to purchase certain of our products and any inability on our part to anticipate or react to such changes can lead to reduced demand for our products or erode our competitive and financial position, resulting in adverse effects on our business, reputation, financial condition or results of operations.
Demand for our products is also dependent in part on product quality, product and marketing innovation and production and distribution, including our ability to: maintain a robust pipeline of new products; improve the quality of existing products; extend our portfolio of products in growing markets and categories (through acquisitions and innovation, such as increasing non-carbonated beverage offerings and other alternatives to, or reformulations of, carbonated beverage offerings); respond to cultural differences and regional consumer preferences (whether through developing or acquiring new products that are responsive to such preferences); monitor and adjust our use of ingredients and packaging materials (including to respond to applicable regulations); develop sweetener alternatives and innovation; increase the recyclability or recoverability of our packaging; create more relevant and personalized experiences for consumers whether in a digital environment or through digital devices in an otherwise physical environment; improve the production and distribution of our products; enhance our data analytics capabilities to develop new commercial insights; respond to competitive product and pricing pressures and changes in distribution channels, including in the e-commerce channel; maintain our labeling certifications (e.g., non-GMO) from independent organizations and regulatory authorities for certain of our products; and implement effective advertising campaigns and marketing programs, including successfully adapting to a rapidly changing media environment through the use of social media and online advertising campaigns and marketing programs.
Although we devote significant resources to the items mentioned above, there can be no assurance as to our continued ability to develop, launch, maintain or distribute successful new products or variants of existing products in a timely manner (including correctly anticipating or effectively reacting to changes in consumer preferences) or to develop and effectively execute advertising and marketing campaigns that appeal to customers and consumers, including through the use of digital technology. Our failure to make the right strategic investments to drive innovation or successfully launch new products or variants of existing products or effectively market or distribute our products can reduce demand for our products, result in inventory write-offs and erode our competitive and financial position and can adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Changes in laws and regulations relating to the use or disposal of plastics or other product packaging can increase our costs, reduce demand for our products or otherwise have an adverse impact on our business, reputation, financial condition or results of operations.


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Certain of our food and beverage products are sold in plastic or other packaging designed to be recoverable for recycling but not all packaging is recovered, whether due to lack of infrastructure or otherwise. In addition, certain of our packaging is not currently recyclable, compostable or biodegradable. There is a growing concern with the accumulation of plastic, including microplastics, and other packaging waste in the environment, particularly in the world’s oceans and waterways. As a result, packaging waste that displays one or more of our brands has in the past and could continue to result in negative publicity (whether or not valid) or reduce consumer demand and overall consumption of our products, resulting in adverse effects on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
In response to these concerns, the United States and many other jurisdictions have imposed or are considering imposing regulations or policies designed to increase the sustainability of packaging, encourage waste reduction and increase recycling rates or facilitate the waste management process or restrict the sale of products in certain packaging. These regulations vary in scope and form from taxes or fees designed to incentivize behavior to restrictions or bans on certain products and materials. For example, 24 countries in the European Union (EU) have established extended producer responsibility (EPR) policies, which make manufacturers such as us responsible for the costs of recycling beverage and food packaging after consumers have used them. EPR policies are also being contemplated in other jurisdictions around the world, including certain states in the United States. In addition, 10 states in the United States as well as a growing number of European countries have a bottle deposit return system in effect, which requires a deposit charged to consumers to incentivize the return of the beverage container. Further, certain jurisdictions have imposed or are considering imposing other types of regulations or policies, including packaging taxes, requirements for bottle caps to be tethered to the plastic bottle, minimum recycled content mandates, which would require packaging to include a certain percentage of post-consumer recycled material in a new package, and even bans on the use of some plastic beverage bottles and other single-use plastics. These laws and regulations, whatever their scope or form, have in the past and could continue to increase the cost of our products, reduce consumer demand and overall consumption of our products or result in negative publicity (whether or not valid), resulting in adverse effects on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
While we continue to devote significant resources to increase the recyclability and sustainability of our packaging, the increased focus on reducing plastic waste has required and could continue to require us to increase capital expenditures, including requiring additional investments to minimize the amount of plastic across our packaging, including to increase the use of alternative packaging materials (e.g., glass and aluminum) in certain markets; increase the amount of recycled content in our packaging; and develop sustainable, bio-based packaging as a replacement for fossil fuel-based plastic packaging, including flexible film alternatives for our snacks packaging. Our failure to minimize our plastics use, increase the amount of recycled content in our packaging or develop sustainable packaging or consumers’ failure to accept such sustainable packaging has in the past and could continue to reduce consumer demand and overall consumption of our products and erode our competitive and financial position. Further, our reputation can be damaged for failure to achieve our sustainability goals with respect to our plastics use, including our goal to reduce 35% of virgin plastic content across our beverage portfolio by 2025, or if we or others in our industry do not act, or are perceived not to act, responsibly with respect to packaging or disposal of our products.
Changes in, or failure to comply with, laws and regulations applicable to our products or our business operations can adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The conduct of our business is subject to various laws and regulations administered by federal, state and local governmental agencies in the United States, as well as government entities and agencies outside the United States, including laws and regulations relating to the production, storage, distribution, sale, display, advertising, marketing, labeling, content, quality, safety, transportation, packaging, disposal, recycling and use of our products, as well as our employment and occupational health and safety practices and protection of personal information. In addition, in many jurisdictions, compliance with competition laws is of special


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importance to us due to our competitive position in those jurisdictions, as is compliance with anti-corruption laws. Many of these laws and regulations have differing or conflicting legal standards across the various markets where our products are made, manufactured, distributed or sold and, in certain markets, such as developing and emerging markets, may be less developed or certain. For example, products containing genetically engineered ingredients are subject to differing regulations and restrictions in the jurisdictions in which our products are made, manufactured, distributed or sold, as is the packaging, disposal and recyclability of our products. For example, the EU has mandated tethered caps for all beverage bottles by 2024 and minimum recycled content of 25% for PET bottles by 2025 and 30% for all plastic bottles by 2030 and laws mandating various minimum recycled content thresholds for PET bottles are also in place in Turkey, Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru, while the use of recycled content in food and beverage packaging is prohibited in a range of countries, for example, in Asia. In addition, these laws and regulations and related interpretations have changed and could continue to change, sometimes dramatically and unexpectedly, as a result of a variety of factors, including political, economic or social events. Such changes have included and could continue to include changes in: food and drug laws; laws related to product labeling, advertising and marketing practices, including restrictions on the audience to whom products are marketed; laws and treaties related to international trade, including laws regarding the import or export of our products or ingredients used in our products and tariffs; laws and programs aimed at reducing, restricting or eliminating ingredients or substances in, or attributes of, certain of our products; laws related to pesticide used by farmers in our supply chain or residual amounts of pesticide that may be found in certain of our ingredients or products; laws related to traceability requirements for our supply chain; laws and programs aimed at discouraging the consumption or altering the package or portion size of certain of our products, including laws imposing restrictions on the use of government funds or programs to purchase certain of our products; increased regulatory scrutiny of, and increased litigation involving product claims and concerns (whether or not valid) regarding the effects on health of ingredients or substances in, or attributes of, certain of our products, including without limitation those found in energy drinks; state consumer protection laws; laws regulating the protection of personal information; cyber-security regulations; regulatory initiatives, including the imposition or proposed imposition of new or increased taxes or other measures impacting the manufacture, distribution or sale of our products; accounting rules and interpretations; employment laws; privacy laws; laws regulating the price we may charge for our products; laws regulating water rights and access to and use of water or utilities; environmental laws, including laws relating to the regulation of water treatment and discharge of wastewater and air emissions and laws relating to the disposal, recovery or recycling of our products and their packaging. Changes in regulatory requirements or changing interpretations thereof, and differing or competing regulations and standards across the markets where our products are made, manufactured, distributed or sold, have in the past and could continue to result in higher compliance costs, capital expenditures and higher production costs, resulting in adverse effects on our business, reputation, financial condition or results of operations.
The imposition of new laws, regulations or governmental policy and their related interpretations, or changes in any of the foregoing, including taxes, labeling, product, production, recovery or recycling requirements, or other limitations on, or pertaining to, the sale or advertisement of certain of our products, ingredients or substances contained in, or attributes of, our products, commodities used in the production of our products or use, disposal, recovery or recyclability of our products and their packaging, may further alter the way in which we do business and, therefore, may continue to increase our costs or liabilities or reduce demand for our products, resulting in adverse effects on our business, financial condition or results of operations. If one jurisdiction imposes or proposes to impose new requirements or restrictions, other jurisdictions often follow. For example, if one jurisdiction imposes a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages or foods, or imposes a specific labeling or warning requirement, other jurisdictions may impose similar or other measures that impact the manufacture, distribution or sale of our products. The foregoing has in the past and could continue to result


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in decreased demand for certain of our products, adverse publicity or increased concerns about the health implications of consumption of ingredients or substances in our products (whether or not valid).
In addition, studies (whether or not scientifically valid) have been and continue to be underway by third parties purporting to assess the health implications of consumption of certain ingredients or substances present in certain of our products or packaging materials, such as 4-MeI, acrylamide, caffeine, pesticides (e.g., glyphosate), furfuryl alcohol, added sugars, sodium, saturated fat and plastic. Third parties have also published documents or studies claiming (whether or not valid) that taxes can address consumer consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and foods high in sugar, sodium or saturated fat. The results of these studies and documents have contributed to or resulted in and could continue to contribute to or result in an increase in consumer concerns (whether or not valid) about the health implications of consumption of certain of our products, an increase in the number of jurisdictions that impose taxes on our products, or an increase in new labeling, product or production requirements or other restrictions on the manufacturing, sale or display of our products, resulting in reduced demand for our products, our Company being subject to lawsuits or new regulations that can adversely affect sales of our products, and other adverse effects on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Although we have policies and procedures in place that are designed to promote legal and regulatory compliance, our employees, suppliers, or other third parties with whom we do business can take actions, intentional or not, that violate these policies and procedures or applicable laws or regulations or can fail to maintain required documentation sufficient to evidence our compliance with applicable laws or regulations. Failure to comply with such laws or regulations can subject us to criminal or civil enforcement actions, including fines, injunctions, product recalls, penalties, disgorgement of profits or activity restrictions, any of which can adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, certain regulatory authorities under whose laws we operate have enforcement powers that can subject us to actions such as product recall, seizure of products or assets or other sanctions, resulting in an adverse effect on the sales of products in our portfolio or damage to our reputation.
In addition, we and our subsidiaries are party to a variety of legal and environmental remediation obligations arising in the normal course of business, as well as environmental remediation, product liability, toxic tort and related indemnification proceedings in connection with certain historical activities and contractual obligations, including those of businesses acquired by us or our subsidiaries. Due to regulatory complexities, uncertainties inherent in litigation and the risk of unidentified contaminants on current and former properties of ours and our subsidiaries, the potential exists for remediation, liability and indemnification costs to differ materially from the costs we have estimated. We cannot guarantee that our costs in relation to these matters will not exceed our estimates or otherwise have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The imposition or proposed imposition of new or increased taxes aimed at our products can adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Certain jurisdictions in which our products are made, manufactured, distributed or sold have either imposed, or are considering imposing, new or increased taxes on the manufacture, distribution or sale of our products, ingredients or substances contained in, or attributes of, our products or commodities used in the production of our products. These taxes vary in scope and form: some apply to all beverages, including non-caloric beverages, while others apply only to beverages with a caloric sweetener (e.g., sugar). Similarly, some measures apply a single tax rate per ounce/liter on beverages containing over a certain level of added sugar (or other sweetener) while others apply a graduated tax rate depending upon the amount of added sugar (or other sweetener) in the beverage and some apply a flat tax rate on beverages containing a particular substance or ingredient, regardless of the particular substance or ingredient levels. For example, Peru revised an existing threshold tax to become a graduated tax, effective June 2019, in which the per-ounce tax rate is tied to the amount of added sugar present in the beverage: the higher the amount of added sugar, the higher the per-


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ounce tax rate, while Saudi Arabia expanded an existing flat tax rate of 50% on the retail price of carbonated soft drinks to include all sweetened beverages, including non-caloric beverages, effective December 2019. These tax measures, whatever their scope or form, have in the past and could continue to increase the cost of certain of our products, reduce consumer demand and overall consumption of our products, lead to negative publicity (whether based on scientific fact or not) or leave consumers with the perception (whether or not valid) that our products do not meet their health and wellness needs, resulting in adverse effects on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Significant additional labeling or warning requirements or limitations on the marketing or sale of our products could reduce demand for such products and can adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Certain jurisdictions in which our products are made, manufactured, distributed or sold have either imposed, or are considering imposing, product labeling or warning requirements or limitations on the marketing or sale of certain of our products as a result of ingredients or substances contained in such products. These types of provisions have required that we provide a label that highlights perceived concerns about a product or warns consumers to avoid consumption of certain ingredients or substances present in our products. For example, in California in the United States, Proposition 65 requires a specific warning on or relating to any product that contains a substance listed by the State of California as having been found to cause cancer or birth defects or other reproductive harm, unless the level of such substance in the product is below a safe harbor level established by the State of California.
In addition, a number of jurisdictions, both in and outside the United States, have imposed or are considering imposing labeling requirements, including color-coded labeling of certain food and beverage products where colors such as red, yellow and green are used to indicate various levels of a particular ingredient, such as sugar, sodium or saturated fat. The imposition or proposed imposition of additional product labeling or warning requirements has in the past and could continue to reduce overall consumption of our products, lead to negative publicity (whether based on scientific fact or not) or leave consumers with the perception (whether or not valid) that our products do not meet their health and wellness needs, resulting in adverse effects on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our business, financial condition or results of operations can suffer if we are unable to compete effectively.
Our beverage, food and snack products are in highly competitive categories and markets and compete against products of international beverage, food and snack companies that, like us, operate in multiple geographies, as well as regional, local and private label manufacturers and economy brands and other competitors, including smaller companies developing and selling micro brands directly to consumers through e-commerce platforms or through retailers focused on locally-sourced products. In many countries in which our products are sold, including the United States, The Coca-Cola Company is our primary beverage competitor. Other beverage, food and snack competitors include, but are not limited to, Campbell Soup Company, Conagra Brands, Inc., Kellogg Company, Keurig Dr Pepper Inc., The Kraft Heinz Company, Link Snacks, Inc., Mondelēz International, Inc., Monster Beverage Corporation, Nestlé S.A. and Red Bull GmbH.
Our beverage, food and snack products compete primarily on the basis of brand recognition and loyalty, taste, price, value, quality, product variety, innovation, distribution, advertising, marketing and promotional activity, packaging, convenience, service and the ability to anticipate and effectively respond to consumer preferences and trends, including increased consumer focus on health and wellness and the continued acceleration of e-commerce and other methods of distributing and purchasing products. If we are unable to effectively promote our existing products or introduce new products, if our advertising or marketing campaigns are not effective, if we fail to invest in and incorporate technology and digital tools across all areas of our business (including the use of data analytics to enhance our ability to effectively market to consumers), if our competitors spend more aggressively than we do or if we are otherwise unable to effectively respond to pricing pressure or


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compete effectively (including in distributing our products effectively and cost efficiently through all existing and emerging channels of trade, including through e-commerce and hard discounters), we may be unable to grow or maintain sales or category share or we may need to increase capital, marketing or other expenditures, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Failure to realize anticipated benefits from our productivity or reinvestment initiatives or operating model can have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our future success and earnings growth depend, in part, on our ability to continue to reduce costs and improve efficiencies, including implementing shared business service organizational models while reinvesting back into the business. Our productivity initiatives help support our growth initiatives and contribute to our results of operations. We continue to implement productivity initiatives that we believe will position our business for long-term sustainable growth by allowing us to achieve a lower cost structure, improve decision-making and operate more efficiently in the highly competitive beverage, food and snack categories and markets. Some of these measures have yielded and could continue to yield unintended consequences, such as business disruptions, distraction of management and employees, reduced employee morale and productivity, and unexpected additional employee attrition, including the inability to attract or retain key personnel. It is critical that we have the appropriate personnel in place to lead and execute our plans, including to effectively manage personnel adjustments and transitions resulting from these initiatives and increased competition for employees with the skills necessary to implement our plans. If we are unable to successfully implement our productivity initiatives as planned, fail to implement these initiatives as timely as we anticipate, do not achieve expected savings as a result of these initiatives or incur higher than expected or unanticipated costs in implementing these initiatives, fail to identify and implement additional productivity opportunities in the future, or fail to successfully manage business disruptions or unexpected employee consequences on our workforce, morale or productivity, we may not realize all or any of the anticipated benefits, resulting in adverse effects on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Further, in order to continue to capitalize on our cost reduction efforts and operating model, it will be necessary to make certain investments in our business, which may be limited due to capital constraints. From time to time, we have in the past and could continue to implement these investment initiatives to enable us to compete more effectively, including investments to increase manufacturing capacity, improve innovation, transform our manufacturing, commercial and corporate operations through digital technologies and artificial intelligence, and enhance brand management through our use of data analytics to develop new commercial and consumer insights. If we fail to realize all or any of the anticipated benefits of these reinvestment initiatives, our business, financial condition or results of operations can be adversely affected.
Our business, financial condition or results of operations can be adversely affected as a result of political conditions in the markets in which our products are made, manufactured, distributed or sold.
Political conditions in the markets in which our products are made, manufactured, distributed or sold have been and could continue to be difficult to predict, resulting in adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The results of elections, referendums or other political conditions (including government shutdowns) in these markets have in the past and could continue to impact how existing laws, regulations and government programs or policies are implemented or create uncertainty as to how such laws, regulations and government programs or policies may change, including with respect to tariffs, sanctions, climate change regulation, taxes, benefit programs, the movement of goods, services and people between countries, relationships between countries, customer or consumer perception of a particular country or its government and other matters, and has resulted in and could continue to result in exchange rate fluctuation, volatility in global stock markets and global economic uncertainty or adversely affect demand for our products. For example, the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union (commonly referred to as Brexit) is likely to lead to differing laws and regulations in the United Kingdom and European Union and further global economic, trade and regulatory uncertainty. Any changes in, or the imposition of,


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new laws, regulations or governmental policy and their related interpretations due to elections, referendums or other political conditions can have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our business, financial condition or results of operations can be adversely affected if we are unable to grow our business in developing and emerging markets.
Our success depends in part on our ability to grow our business in developing and emerging markets, including Mexico, Russia, the Middle East, Brazil, China and India. However, there can be no assurance that our existing products, variants of our existing products or new products that we make, manufacture, distribute or sell will be accepted or be successful in any particular developing or emerging market, due to local or global competition, product price, cultural differences, consumer preferences as to distribution or otherwise. The following factors can reduce demand for our products or otherwise impede the growth of our business in developing and emerging markets: unstable economic, political or social conditions; acts of war, terrorist acts, and civil unrest; increased competition; volatility in the economic growth of certain of these markets and the related impact on developed countries who export to these markets; volatile oil prices and the impact on the local economy in certain of these markets; our inability to acquire businesses, form strategic business alliances or to make necessary infrastructure investments; our inability to complete divestitures or refranchisings; imposition of new or increased labeling, product or production requirements, or other restrictions; our inability to hire or retain a highly skilled workforce; imposition of new or increased tariffs and other impositions on imported goods or sanctions against, or other regulations restricting contact with, certain countries in these markets, or imposition of new or increased sanctions against U.S. multinational corporations or tariffs on the products of such corporations operating in these markets; actions, such as removing our products from shelves, taken by retailers in response to U.S. trade sanctions, tariffs or other governmental action or policy; foreign ownership restrictions; nationalization of our assets or the assets of our suppliers, bottlers, contract manufacturers, distributors, joint venture partners or other third parties; imposition of taxes on our products or the ingredients or substances used in our products; government-mandated closure, or threatened closure, of our operations or the operations of our suppliers, bottlers, contract manufacturers, distributors, joint venture partners, customers or other third parties; restrictions on the import or export of our products or ingredients or substances used in our products; regulations relating to the repatriation of funds currently held in foreign jurisdictions to the United States; highly inflationary economies and potential highly inflationary economies, devaluation or fluctuation, such as the devaluation of the Russian ruble, Turkish lira, Brazilian real, Argentine peso and the Mexican peso, or demonetization of currency; regulations on the transfer of funds to and from foreign countries, currency controls or other currency exchange restrictions, which result in significant cash balances in foreign countries, from time to time, or can significantly affect our ability to effectively manage our operations in certain of these markets and can result in the deconsolidation of such businesses, such as occurred with respect to our Venezuelan businesses which were deconsolidated at the end of the third quarter of 2015; the lack of well-established or reliable legal systems; increased costs of doing business due to compliance with complex foreign and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our international operations, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act; and adverse consequences, such as the assessment of fines or penalties, for any failure to comply with these laws and regulations. If we are unable to expand our businesses in developing and emerging markets, effectively operate, or manage the risks associated with operating, in these markets, or achieve the return on capital we expect from our investments in these markets, our business, reputation, financial condition or results of operations can be adversely affected.
Uncertain or unfavorable economic conditions may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.


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Many of the countries in which our products are made, manufactured, distributed and sold have experienced and could continue to experience uncertain or unfavorable economic conditions, such as recessions or economic slowdowns. Our business or financial results have in the past and could continue to be adversely impacted by uncertain or unfavorable economic conditions in the United States and globally, including: adverse changes in interest rates, tax laws or tax rates; volatile commodity markets, including speculative influences; highly inflationary economies, devaluation, fluctuation or demonetization; contraction in the availability of credit in the marketplace due to legislation or economic conditions; the effects of government initiatives, including demonetization, austerity or stimulus measures to manage economic conditions and any changes to or cessation of such initiatives; the effects of any default by or deterioration in the creditworthiness of the countries in which our products are made, manufactured, distributed or sold or of countries that may then impact countries in which our products are made, manufactured, distributed or sold; reduced demand for our products resulting from volatility in general global economic conditions or a shift in consumer preferences for economic reasons or otherwise to regional, local or private label products or other lower-cost products, or to less profitable sales channels; or a decrease in the fair value of pension or post-retirement assets that could increase future employee benefit costs and/or funding requirements of our pension or post-retirement plans. In addition, we cannot predict how current or future economic conditions will affect our customers, consumers, suppliers, bottlers, contract manufacturers, distributors, joint venture partners or other third parties and any negative impact on any of the foregoing may also have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
In addition, some of the major financial institutions with which we execute transactions, including U.S. and non-U.S. commercial banks, insurance companies, investment banks and other financial institutions, may be exposed to a ratings downgrade, bankruptcy, liquidity events, default or similar risks as a result of unfavorable economic conditions, changing regulatory requirements or other factors beyond our control. A ratings downgrade, bankruptcy, receivership, default or similar event involving a major financial institution, or changes in the regulatory environment, can limit the ability or willingness of financial institutions to enter into financial transactions with us, including to provide banking or related cash management services, or to extend credit on terms commercially acceptable to us or at all; can leave us with reduced borrowing capacity or exposed to certain currencies or price risk associated with forecasted purchases of raw materials, including through our use of fixed-price contracts and purchase orders, pricing agreements and derivative instruments, including swaps and futures; or can result in a decline in the market value of our investments in debt securities, resulting in an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Similar risks exist with respect to our customers, suppliers, bottlers, contract manufacturers, distributors and joint venture partners and can result in their inability to obtain credit to purchase our products or to finance the manufacture and distribution of our products resulting in canceled orders and/or product delays, which can also have an adverse impact on our business, reputation, financial condition or results of operations.
Our business and reputation can suffer if we are unable to protect our information systems against, or effectively respond to, cyberattacks or other cyber incidents or if our information systems, or those of our customers, suppliers, bottlers, contract manufacturers, distributors, joint venture partners or other third parties, are otherwise disrupted.
We depend on information systems and technology, some of which are provided by third parties, including public websites and cloud-based services, for many activities important to our business, including: to interface with our customers and consumers; to engage in marketing activities; to enable and improve the effectiveness of our operations; to order and manage materials from suppliers; to manage inventory; to manage and operate our facilities; to conduct research and development, including through the use of data analytics; to maintain accurate financial records; to achieve operational efficiencies; to comply with regulatory, financial reporting, legal and tax requirements; to collect and store sensitive data and confidential information; to communicate electronically among our global operations and with our employees and the employees of our customers,


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suppliers, bottlers, contract manufacturers, distributors, joint venture partners and other third parties; and to communicate with our investors.
Cyberattacks and other cyber incidents are occurring more frequently, are constantly evolving in nature, are becoming more sophisticated and are being carried out by groups and individuals (including criminal hackers, hacktivists, state-sponsored actors, criminal and terrorist organizations, individuals or groups participating in organized crime and insiders) with a wide range of expertise and motives (including monetization of corporate, payment or other internal or personal data, theft of computing resources, notoriety, financial fraud, operational disruption, theft of trade secrets and intellectual property for competitive advantage and leverage for political, social, economic and environmental reasons). Such cyberattacks and cyber incidents can take many forms including cyber extortion, denial of service, social engineering, such as impersonation and identity takeover attempts to fraudulently induce employees or others to disclose information or unwittingly provide access to systems or data, introduction of viruses or malware, such as ransomware, exploiting vulnerabilities in hardware, software or other infrastructure, hacking, website defacement or theft of passwords and other credentials, unauthorized use of computing resources for digital currency mining and business email compromises. As with other global companies, we are regularly subject to cyberattacks, including many of the types of attacks described above. Although we incur significant costs in protecting against or remediating cyberattacks or other cyber incidents, no cyberattack or other cyber incident has, to our knowledge, had a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations to date.
If we do not allocate and effectively manage the resources necessary to build and maintain our information technology infrastructure, including monitoring networks and systems, upgrading our security policies and the skills and training of our employees, and requiring our third-party service providers, customers, suppliers, bottlers, contract manufacturers, distributors, joint venture partners or other third parties to do the same, if we or they fail to timely identify or appropriately respond to cyberattacks or other cyber incidents, or if our or their information systems are damaged, compromised, destroyed or shut down (whether as a result of natural disasters, fires, power outages, acts of terrorism or other catastrophic events, network outages, software, equipment or telecommunications failures, technology development defects, user errors, lapses in our controls or the malicious or negligent actions of employees (including misuse of information they are entitled to access), or from deliberate cyberattacks such as malicious or disruptive software, phishing, denial of service attacks, malicious social engineering, hackers or otherwise), our business can be disrupted and, among other things, be subject to: transaction errors or financial loss; processing inefficiencies; the loss of, or failure to attract, new customers and consumers; lost revenues or other costs resulting from the disruption or shutdown of computer systems or other information technology systems at our offices, plants, warehouses, distribution centers or other facilities, or the loss of a competitive advantage due to the unauthorized use, acquisition or disclosure of, or access to, confidential information; the incurrence of costs to restore data and to safeguard against future extortion attempts; the loss of, or damage to, intellectual property or trade secrets, including the loss or unauthorized disclosure of sensitive data or other assets; alteration, corruption or loss of accounting, financial or other data on which we rely for financial reporting and other purposes, which can cause errors or delays in our financial reporting; damage to our reputation or brands; damage to employee, customer and consumer relations; litigation; regulatory enforcement actions or fines; unauthorized disclosure of confidential personal information of our employees, customers or consumers; the loss of information and/or business operations disruption resulting from the failure of security patches to be developed and installed on a timely basis; violation of data privacy, security or other laws and regulations; and remediation costs.
Further, our information systems and those of our third-party providers, and the information stored therein can be compromised, including through cyberattacks or other external or internal methods, resulting in unauthorized parties accessing or extracting sensitive data or confidential information. In the ordinary course of business, we receive, process, transmit and store information relating to identifiable individuals, primarily employees and former employees. Privacy and data protection laws may be interpreted and applied differently from country to country or, within the United States, from state to state, and can create inconsistent or


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conflicting requirements. Our efforts to comply with privacy and data protection laws, including with respect to data from residents of the European Union who are covered by the General Data Protection Regulation, which went into effect in May 2018, and residents of the State of California covered by the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, which went into effect on January 1, 2020, impose significant costs or challenges that are likely to increase over time. Failure to comply with existing or future data privacy laws and regulations can result in litigation, claims, legal or regulatory proceedings, inquiries or investigations.
We continue to devote significant resources to network security, backup and disaster recovery, enhancing our internal controls, and other security measures, including training, to protect our systems and data. In addition, our risk management program also includes periodic review and discussion by our Board of Directors of analyses of emerging cybersecurity threats and our plans and strategies to address them. However, these security measures and processes cannot provide absolute security or guarantee that we will be successful in preventing or responding to every such breach or disruption. In addition, due to the constantly evolving nature of these security threats, the form and impact of any future incident cannot be predicted.
Similar risks exist with respect to the cloud-based service providers and other third-party vendors that we rely upon for aspects of our information technology support services and administrative functions, including payroll processing, health and benefit plan administration and certain finance and accounting functions, and systems managed, hosted, provided and/or used by third parties and their vendors. The need to coordinate with various third-party vendors may complicate our efforts to resolve any issues that arise. As a result, we are subject to the risk that the activities associated with our third-party vendors may adversely affect our business even if the attack or breach does not directly impact our systems or information. Moreover, our increased use of mobile and cloud technologies has heightened these and other operational risks, as certain aspects of the security of such technologies are complex, unpredictable or beyond our control.
While we currently maintain insurance coverage that, subject to its terms and conditions, is intended to address costs associated with certain aspects of cyber incidents, network failures and data privacy-related concerns, this insurance coverage may not, depending on the specific facts and circumstances surrounding an incident, cover all losses or all types of claims that arise from an incident, or the damage to our reputation or brands that may result from an incident.
Our business, financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected by increased costs, disruption of supply or shortages of raw materials, energy and other supplies.
We and our business partners use various raw materials, energy and other supplies in our business. The principal ingredients we use in our beverage, food and snack products are apple, orange and pineapple juice and other juice concentrates, aspartame, corn, corn sweeteners, flavorings, flour, grapefruit, oats, oranges and other fruits, potatoes, raw milk, rice, seasonings, sucralose, sugar, vegetable and essential oils, and wheat. Our key packaging materials include plastic resins, including PET and polypropylene resins used for plastic beverage bottles and film packaging used for snack foods, aluminum used for cans, glass bottles, closures, cardboard and paperboard cartons. In addition, we continue to integrate recyclability into our product development process and support the increased use of recycled content, including recycled PET, in our packaging. Fuel, electricity and natural gas are also important commodities for our businesses due to their use in our and our business partners’ facilities and the vehicles delivering our products.
Some of these raw materials and supplies are sourced from countries experiencing civil unrest, political instability or unfavorable economic conditions, and some are available from a limited number of suppliers or a sole supplier or are in short supply when seasonal demand is at its peak. We cannot assure that we will be able to maintain favorable arrangements and relationships with these suppliers or that our contingency plans, including development of ingredients, materials or supplies to replace ingredients, materials or supplies sourced from such suppliers, will be effective in preventing disruptions that may arise from shortages or discontinuation of any ingredient that is sourced from such suppliers. In addition, increasing focus on climate


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change, deforestation, the use of plastics and energy, animal welfare and human rights concerns and other risks associated with the global food system is leading to increased activism focusing on consumer goods companies, governmental intervention and consumer response, and can adversely affect our or our suppliers’ reputation and business and our ability to procure the materials we need to operate our business. The raw materials and energy, including fuel, that we use for the manufacturing, production and distribution of our products are largely commodities that are subject to price volatility and fluctuations in availability caused by many factors, including changes in global supply and demand, weather conditions (including any potential effects of climate change), fire, natural disasters (such as a hurricane, tornado, earthquake, wildfire or flooding), disease or pests (including the impact of greening disease on the citrus industry), agricultural uncertainty, health epidemics or pandemics or other contagious outbreaks, such as the recent coronavirus, governmental incentives and controls (including import/export restrictions, such as new or increased tariffs, sanctions, quotas or trade barriers), limited or sole sources of supply, political uncertainties, acts of terrorism, governmental instability or currency exchange rates. For example, concerns regarding trade relations between the United States and China escalated during fiscal 2019, with the United States imposing tariffs on the importation of certain Chinese goods and retaliatory Chinese tariffs on U.S. goods. Higher duties on existing tariffs or additional tariffs imposed by the United States on a broader range of imports, or further retaliatory trade measures taken by China or other countries in response, could result in an increase in supply chain costs that we are not able to offset or otherwise adversely impact our results of operations. Shortage of some of these raw materials and other supplies, sustained interruption in their supply or an increase in their costs can adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Many of our ingredients, raw materials and commodities are purchased in the open market. The prices we pay for such items are subject to fluctuation, and we manage this risk through the use of fixed-price contracts and purchase orders, pricing agreements and derivative instruments, including swaps and futures. If commodity price changes result in unexpected or significant increases in raw materials and energy costs, we may be unwilling or unable to increase our product prices or unable to effectively hedge against commodity price increases to offset these increased costs without suffering reduced volume, revenue, margins and operating results. In addition, certain of the derivatives used to hedge price risk do not qualify for hedge accounting treatment and, therefore, can result in increased volatility in our net earnings in any given period due to changes in the spot prices of the underlying commodities.
Water scarcity can have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We and our suppliers, bottlers, contract manufacturers, joint venture partners and other third parties use water in the manufacturing of our products. Water is a limited resource in many parts of the world. The lack of available water of acceptable quality, increasing focus by governmental and non-governmental organizations, investors, customers and consumers on water scarcity and increasing pressure to conserve and replenish water in areas of scarcity and stress may lead to: supply chain disruption; adverse effects on our operations or the operations of our suppliers, bottlers, contract manufacturers, distributor, joint venture partners or other third parties; higher compliance costs; capital expenditures (including additional investments in the development of technologies to enhance water efficiency and reduce water consumption); higher production costs, including less favorable pricing for water; the cessation of operations at, or relocation of, our facilities or the facilities of our suppliers, bottlers, contract manufacturers, distributors, joint venture partners or other third parties; failure to achieve our sustainability goals relating to water use; perception (whether or not valid) of our failure to act responsibly with respect to water use or to effectively respond to new, or changes in, legal or regulatory requirements concerning water scarcity; or damage to our reputation, any of which can adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Business disruptions can have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.


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Our ability, and that of our suppliers and other third parties, including our bottlers, contract manufacturers, distributors, joint venture partners and customers, to make, manufacture, transport, distribute and sell products in our portfolio is critical to our success. Damage or disruption to our or their operations has occurred in the past and could continue to occur due to any of the following factors which can impair the ability to make, manufacture, transport, distribute or sell products in our portfolio: adverse weather conditions (including any potential effects of climate change) or natural disasters, such as a hurricane, tornado, earthquake, wildfire or flooding; government action; economic or political uncertainties or instability in countries in which such products are made, manufactured, distributed or sold, which may also affect our ability to protect the security of our assets and employees; fire; terrorism; outbreak or escalation of armed hostilities; food safety warnings or recalls, whether related to products in our portfolio or otherwise; health epidemics or pandemics or other contagious outbreaks, such as the recent coronavirus; supply and commodity shortages; unplanned delays or unexpected problems associated with repairs or enhancements of facilities in which such products are made, manufactured, distributed or sold; loss or impairment of key manufacturing sites; cyber incidents, including the disruption or shutdown of computer systems or other information technology systems at our offices, plants, warehouses, distribution centers or other facilities or those of our suppliers and other third parties who make, manufacture, transport, distribute and sell products in our portfolio; industrial accidents or other occupational health and safety issues; telecommunications failures; power, fuel or water shortages; strikes, labor disputes or lack of availability of qualified personnel, such as truck drivers; or other reasons beyond our control or the control of our suppliers and other third parties. Failure to take adequate steps to mitigate the likelihood or potential impact of such events, or to effectively manage such events if they occur, has in the past resulted and could continue to result in adverse effects on our business, financial condition or results of operations, as well as require additional resources to restore operations.
Product contamination or tampering or issues or concerns with respect to product quality, safety and integrity can adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition or results of operations.
Product contamination or tampering, the failure to maintain high standards for product quality, safety and integrity, including with respect to raw materials and ingredients obtained from suppliers, or allegations (whether or not valid) of product quality issues, mislabeling, misbranding, spoilage, allergens, adulteration or contamination with respect to products in our portfolio may reduce demand for such products, and cause production and delivery disruptions or increase costs, which can adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition or results of operations. If any of the products in our portfolio are mislabeled or become unfit for consumption or cause injury, illness or death, or if appropriate resources are not devoted to product quality and safety (particularly as we expand our portfolio into new categories) or to comply with changing food safety requirements, we can decide to, or be required to, recall products in our portfolio and/or we may be subject to liability or government action, which can result in payment of damages or fines, cause certain products in our portfolio to be unavailable for a period of time, result in destruction of product inventory, or result in adverse publicity (whether or not valid), which can reduce consumer demand and brand equity. Moreover, even if allegations of product contamination or tampering or suggestions that our products were not fit for consumption are meritless, the negative publicity surrounding assertions against us or products in our portfolio or processes can adversely affect our reputation or brands. Our business can also be adversely affected if consumers lose confidence in product quality, safety and integrity generally, even if such loss of confidence is unrelated to products in our portfolio. Any of the foregoing can adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, if we do not have adequate insurance, if we do not have enforceable indemnification from suppliers, bottlers, contract manufacturers, distributors, joint venture partners or other third parties or if indemnification is not available, the liability relating to such product claims or disruption as a result of recall efforts can materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Any damage to our reputation or brand image can adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.


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We are a leading global beverage, food and snack company with brands that are respected household names throughout the world. Maintaining a good reputation globally is critical to selling our branded products. Our reputation or brand image has in the past and could continue to be adversely impacted by any of the following, or by adverse publicity (whether or not valid) relating thereto: the failure to maintain high ethical, social and environmental practices for all of our operations and activities, including with respect to human rights, child labor laws and workplace conditions and safety, or failure to require our suppliers or other third parties to do so; the failure to achieve our goals of reducing added sugars, sodium and saturated fat in certain of our products and of growing our portfolio of product choices; the failure to achieve our other sustainability goals, including with respect to plastic packaging, or to be perceived as appropriately addressing matters of social responsibility; the failure to protect our intellectual property, including in the event our brands are used without our authorization; health concerns (whether or not valid) about our products or particular ingredients or substances in, or attributes of, our products, including concerns regarding whether certain of our products contribute to obesity; the imposition or proposed imposition of new or increased taxes, labeling requirements or other limitations on, or pertaining to, the sale, display or advertising of our products; any failure to comply, or perception of a failure to comply, with our policies and goals, including those regarding advertising to children and reducing calorie consumption from sugar-sweetened beverages; our research and development efforts; the recall (voluntary or otherwise) of any products in our portfolio; our environmental impact, including use of agricultural materials, plastics or other packaging, water, energy use and waste management; any failure to achieve our goals with respect to reducing our impact on the environment, including the recyclability or recoverability of our packaging, or perception of a failure to act responsibly with respect to water use and the environment; any failure to achieve our goals with respect to human rights throughout our value chain; the practices of our employees, agents, customers, suppliers, bottlers, contract manufacturers, distributors, joint venture partners or other third parties (including others in our industry) with respect to any of the foregoing, actual or perceived; consumer perception of our industry; consumer perception of our advertising campaigns, sponsorship arrangements or marketing programs; consumer perception of our use of social media; consumer perception of statements made by us, our employees and executives, agents, customers, suppliers, bottlers, contract manufacturers, distributors, joint venture partners or other third parties (including others in our industry); or our responses or the responses of others in our industry to any of the foregoing.
In addition, we operate globally, which requires us to comply with numerous local regulations, including, without limitation, anti-corruption laws, competition laws and tax laws and regulations of the jurisdictions in which our products are made, manufactured, distributed or sold. In the event that we or our employees or agents engage in or are believed to have engaged in improper activities, we have in the past and could continue to be subject to regulatory proceedings, including enforcement actions, litigation, loss of sales or other consequences, resulting in damage to our reputation in the United States or abroad. Failure to comply with local laws and regulations, to maintain an effective system of internal control or to provide accurate and timely financial information can also hurt our reputation.
Further, the popularity of social media and other consumer-oriented technologies has increased the speed and accessibility of information dissemination. As a result, negative or inaccurate posts or comments about us, our products, policies, practices, advertising campaigns and marketing programs or sponsorship arrangements; our use of social media or of posts or other information disseminated by us or our employees, agents, customers, suppliers, bottlers, contract manufacturers, distributors, joint venture partners or other third parties; consumer perception of any of the foregoing, or failure by us to respond effectively to any of the foregoing, has in the past and could continue to also generate adverse publicity (whether or not valid) that can damage our reputation.
Damage to our reputation or brand image or loss of consumer confidence in our products or employees for any of these or other reasons has in the past and could continue to result in decreased demand for our products,


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resulting in adverse effects on our business, financial condition or results of operations, as well as requiring additional resources to rebuild our reputation.
Failure to successfully complete or integrate acquisitions and joint ventures into our existing operations, or to complete or effectively manage divestitures or refranchisings, can adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We regularly review our portfolio of businesses and evaluate potential acquisitions, joint ventures, divestitures, refranchisings and other strategic transactions. Issues associated with these activities have in the past and could continue to include, among other things: our ability to realize the full extent of the expected returns, benefits, cost savings or synergies as a result of a transaction, within the anticipated time frame, or at all; receipt of necessary consents, clearances and approvals in connection with a transaction; and diversion of management’s attention from day-to-day operations.
With respect to acquisitions, the following factors also have in the past and could continue to pose additional risk risks: our ability to successfully combine our businesses with the business of the acquired company, including integrating the acquired company’s manufacturing, distribution, sales, accounting, financial reporting and administrative support activities and information technology systems with our company; our ability to successfully operate in new categories or territories; motivating, recruiting and retaining executives and key employees (both of the acquired company and our company); conforming standards, controls (including internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures, environmental compliance, health and safety compliance and compliance with other laws and regulations), procedures and policies, business cultures and compensation structures between us and the acquired company; consolidating and streamlining corporate and administrative infrastructures and avoiding increased operating expenses; consolidating sales and marketing operations; retaining existing customers and attracting new customers; retaining existing distributors; identifying and eliminating redundant and underperforming operations and assets; coordinating geographically dispersed organizations; managing tax costs or inefficiencies associated with integrating our operations following completion of an acquisition; and other unanticipated problems or liabilities, such as contingent liabilities and litigation.
With respect to joint ventures, we share ownership and management responsibility with one or more parties who may or may not have the same goals, strategies, priorities, resources or values as we do. Joint ventures are intended to be operated for the benefit of all co-owners, rather than for our exclusive benefit. Business decisions or other actions or omissions of our joint venture partners have in the past and could continue to adversely affect the value of our investment, result in litigation or regulatory action against us or otherwise damage our reputation and brands and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
In addition, acquisitions and joint ventures outside of the United States increase our exposure to risks associated with operations outside of the United States, including fluctuations in exchange rates and compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws and laws and regulations outside the United States.
With respect to divestitures and refranchisings, we have in the past and could continue to be unable to complete or effectively manage such transactions on terms commercially favorable to us or at all, resulting in failure to achieve the anticipated benefits or cost savings from the divestiture or refranchising. Further, as divestitures and refranchisings reduce our direct control over certain aspects of our business, any failure to maintain good relations with divested or refranchised businesses in our supply or sales chain can adversely impact our sales or business performance.
Acquisitions or joint ventures that are not successfully completed, integrated into our existing operations or managed effectively, or divestitures or refranchisings that are not successfully completed or managed


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effectively or do not result in the benefits or cost savings we expect, have in the past and could continue to result in adverse effects on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
A change in our estimates and underlying assumptions regarding the future performance of our businesses can result in an impairment charge that materially affects our results of operations.
We conduct impairment tests on our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets, as well as other investments and other long-lived assets annually, during our third quarter, or more frequently if circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable and have recorded impairments in the past. Any changes in our estimates or underlying assumptions regarding the future performance of our reporting units or in determining the fair value of any such reporting unit, including goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets, as well as other investments and other long-lived assets, can adversely affect our results of operations. Factors considered to determine if an impairment exist include, but are not limited to: significant negative economic or industry trends or competitive operating conditions; significant macroeconomic conditions that can result in a future increase in the weighted-average cost of capital used to estimate fair value; and significant changes in the nature and timing of decisions regarding assets or markets that do not perform consistent with our expectations, including factors we use to estimate future levels of sales, operating profit or cash flows. While no material impairment charges have been recorded in the periods presented in this Form 10-K, we may in the future record impairment charges that have a material adverse effect on our results of operations in the periods recognized. See Note 4 to our consolidated financial statements for further information.
Increases in income tax rates, changes in income tax laws or disagreements with tax authorities can adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. 
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and in certain foreign jurisdictions in which we operate. Increases in income tax rates or other changes in income tax laws in any particular jurisdiction can reduce our after-tax income from such jurisdiction and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Our operations outside the United States generate a significant portion of our income. In addition, existing tax laws in the United States and many of the other countries in which our products are made, manufactured, distributed or sold, including countries in which we have significant operations, have been and could in the future be subject to significant change. For example, in December 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJ Act) was signed into law in the United States. While our accounting for the recorded impact of the TCJ Act is deemed to be complete, these amounts are based on prevailing regulations and currently available information, and additional guidance issued by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) may continue to impact our recorded amounts in future periods. In addition, on May 19, 2019, a public referendum held in Switzerland passed the Federal Act on Tax Reform and AHV Financing (TRAF), effective January 1, 2020. Certain provisions of the TRAF were enacted in fiscal year 2019, resulting in adjustments to our deferred taxes. The future impact of the TRAF cannot currently be estimated and we continue to monitor and assess the impact of TRAF on our business and financial results. For further information regarding the impact and potential impact of the TCJ Act and the TRAF, see “Our Liquidity and Capital Resources” and “Our Critical Accounting Policies” in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 5 to our consolidated financial statements.
Additional changes in the U.S. tax regime or in how U.S. multinational corporations are taxed on foreign earnings, including changes in how existing tax laws are interpreted or enforced, can adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. For example, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has recommended changes to numerous long-standing international tax principles through its base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) project. These changes have been or are being adopted by many of the countries in which we do business. In connection with the OECD’s BEPS project, the OECD has undertaken a new project focused on “Addressing the Tax Challenges of the Digitalization of the Economy.” This project may impact all multinational businesses by reallocating where some profits are taxed and implementing a global model for minimum taxation. The increasingly complex


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global tax environment has in the past and could continue to increase tax uncertainty, resulting in higher compliance costs and adverse effects on our provision for income taxes, results of operations and/or cash flow.
We are also subject to regular reviews, examinations and audits by the IRS and other taxing authorities with respect to income and non-income based taxes both within and outside the United States. In connection with the OECD’s BEPS project, companies are required to disclose more information to tax authorities on operations around the world, which may lead to greater audit scrutiny of profits earned in various countries. Economic and political pressures to increase tax revenues in jurisdictions in which we operate, or the adoption of new or reformed tax legislation or regulation, may make resolving tax disputes more difficult and the final resolution of tax audits and any related litigation can differ from our historical provisions and accruals, resulting in an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
If we are unable to recruit, hire or retain key employees or a highly skilled and diverse workforce, it can have a negative impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our continued growth requires us to recruit, hire, retain and develop our leadership bench and a highly skilled and diverse workforce. We compete to recruit and hire new employees and then must train them and develop their skills and competencies. Our employees are highly sought after by our competitors and other companies and our continued ability to compete effectively depends on our ability to retain, develop and motivate highly skilled personnel for all areas of our organization. Any unplanned turnover or unsuccessful implementation of our succession plans to backfill current leadership positions, including the Chief Executive Officer, or failure to hire and retain a highly skilled and diverse workforce, including with key capabilities such as e-commerce and digital marketing and data analytic skills, can deplete our institutional knowledge base, erode our competitive advantage or result in increased costs due to increased competition for employees, higher employee turnover or increased employee benefit costs. Any of the foregoing can adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition or results of operations.
The loss of, or a significant reduction in sales to, any key customer can adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our customers include wholesale and other distributors, foodservice customers, grocery stores, drug stores, convenience stores, discount/dollar stores, mass merchandisers, membership stores, hard discounters, e-commerce retailers and authorized independent bottlers, among others. We must maintain mutually beneficial relationships with our key customers, including Wal-Mart, to compete effectively. Any inability to resolve a significant dispute with any of our key customers, a change in the business condition (financial or otherwise) of any of our key customers, even if unrelated to us, a significant reduction in sales to any key customer, or the loss of any of our key customers can adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Disruption in the retail landscape, including rapid growth in the e-commerce channel and hard discounters, can adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our industry has been affected by changes to the retail landscape, including the rapid growth in sales through e-commerce websites, mobile commerce applications and subscription services as well as the integration of physical and digital operations among retailers. We continue to make significant investments in attracting talent to and building our global e-commerce and digital capabilities. Although we are engaged in e-commerce with respect to many of our products, if we are unable to maintain and develop successful relationships with existing and new e-commerce retailers or otherwise adapt to the growing e-commerce landscape, while simultaneously maintaining relationships with our key customers operating in traditional retail channels, we may be disadvantaged in certain channels and with certain customers and consumers, which can adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, the growth in e-commerce and hard discounters may result in consumer price deflation, which may affect our relationships with key retail


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customers. Further, the ability of consumers to compare prices on a real-time basis using digital technology puts additional pressure on us to maintain competitive prices. If these e-commerce and hard discounter retailers were to take significant additional market share away from traditional retailers and/or we fail to adapt to the rapidly changing retail and e-commerce landscapes, including finding ways to create more powerful digital tools and capabilities for our retail customers to enable them to grow their businesses, our ability to maintain and grow our profitability, share of sales or volume and our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected.
Further, the retail landscape continues to be impacted by the increased consolidation of retail ownership and purchasing power, particularly in North America, Europe and Latin America, resulting in large retailers or buying groups with increased purchasing power, which may impact our ability to compete in these areas. Such retailers or buying groups demand improved efficiency, lower pricing and increased promotional programs. Further, should larger retailers increase utilization of their own distribution networks, other distribution channels such as e-commerce, or private label brands, the competitive advantages we derive from our go-to-market systems and brand equity may be eroded. In addition, such consolidation can continue to adversely impact our smaller customers’ ability to compete effectively, resulting in an inability on their part to pay for our products or reduced or canceled orders of our products. Further, the growth of hard discounters that are focused on limiting the number of items they sell and selling predominantly private label brands may continue to reduce our ability to sell our products through such retailers. Failure to appropriately respond to any of the foregoing, including failure to offer effective sales incentives and marketing programs to our customers, can reduce our ability to secure adequate shelf space and product availability at our retailers, adversely affect our ability to maintain or grow our share of sales or volume, and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our borrowing costs and access to capital and credit markets would be adversely affected by a downgrade or potential downgrade of our credit ratings.
Rating agencies routinely evaluate us, and their ratings of our long-term and short-term debt are based on a number of factors, including our cash generating capability, levels of indebtedness, policies with respect to shareholder distributions and our financial strength generally, as well as factors beyond our control, such as the then-current state of the economy and our industry generally. Any downgrade of our credit ratings by a credit rating agency, especially any downgrade to below investment grade, whether as a result of our actions or factors which are beyond our control, can increase our future borrowing costs, impair our ability to access capital and credit markets on terms commercially acceptable to us or at all, and result in a reduction in our liquidity. We expect to maintain Tier 1 commercial paper access, which we believe will facilitate appropriate financial flexibility and ready access to global credit markets at favorable interest rates. However, any downgrade of our current short-term credit ratings can impair our ability to access the commercial paper market with the same flexibility that we have experienced historically, and therefore require us to rely more heavily on more expensive types of debt financing. Our borrowing costs and access to the commercial paper market can also be adversely affected if a credit rating agency announces that our ratings are under review for a potential downgrade. An increase in our borrowing costs, limitations on our ability to access the global capital and credit markets or a reduction in our liquidity can adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
If we are not able to successfully implement shared services or utilize information technology systems and networks effectively, our ability to conduct our business may be negatively impacted.
We have entered into agreements with third-party service providers to utilize information technology support services and administrative functions in certain areas of our business, including payroll processing, health and benefit plan administration and certain finance and accounting functions. We may enter into new or additional agreements for shared services in other functions in the future to achieve cost savings and efficiencies as we continue to migrate to shared business service organizational models across our business


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operations. In addition, we increasingly utilize cloud-based services and systems and networks managed by third-party vendors to process, transmit and store information and to conduct certain of our business activities and transactions with employees, customers, consumers and other third parties. Failure by these third-party service providers or vendors to perform effectively, or our failure to adequately monitor their performance (including compliance with service level agreements or regulatory or legal requirements), has in the past and could continue to result in our inability to achieve the expected cost savings, additional costs to correct errors made by such service providers, damage to our reputation or our being subject to litigation, claims, legal or regulatory proceedings, inquiries or investigations. Depending on the function involved, such errors can also lead to business disruption, processing inefficiencies, the loss of or damage to intellectual property or sensitive data through security breaches or otherwise, incorrect or adverse effects on financial reporting, litigation or remediation costs, damage to our reputation or have a negative impact on employee morale. In addition, the management of multiple third-party service providers increases operational complexity and decreases our control.
We continue on our multi-year business transformation initiative to migrate certain of our systems, including our financial processing systems, to enterprise-wide systems solutions. These systems implementations are part of our ongoing global business transformation initiative, and we plan to continue implementing such systems throughout other parts of our businesses. If we do not allocate and effectively manage the resources necessary to build and sustain the proper information technology infrastructure, or if we fail to achieve the expected benefits from this initiative, it may impact our ability to process transactions accurately and efficiently, and remain in step with the changing needs of our business, which can result in the loss of customers or consumers and revenue. In addition, the failure to either deliver the applications on time, or anticipate the necessary readiness and training needs, can lead to business disruption and loss of customers or consumers and revenue. In connection with these implementations and resulting business process changes, we continue to enhance the design and documentation of business processes and controls, including our internal control over financial reporting processes, to maintain effective controls over our financial reporting. To date, this transition has not materially affected, and we do not expect it to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Fluctuations in exchange rates impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We hold assets, incur liabilities, earn revenues and pay expenses in a variety of currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Because our consolidated financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars, the financial statements of our subsidiaries outside the United States, where the functional currency is other than the U.S. dollar, are translated into U.S. dollars. Our operations outside of the United States, particularly in Mexico, Russia, Canada, the United Kingdom, China and Brazil, generate a significant portion of our net revenue. In addition, we purchase many of the ingredients, raw materials and commodities used in our business in numerous markets and in numerous currencies. Fluctuations in exchange rates, including as a result of currency controls or other currency exchange restrictions have had, and could continue to have, an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Climate change or legal, regulatory or market measures to address climate change may negatively affect our business and operations or damage our reputation.
There is concern that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have an adverse impact on global temperatures, weather patterns and the frequency and severity of extreme weather and natural disasters. In the event that such climate change has a negative effect on agricultural productivity, we may be subject to decreased availability or less favorable pricing for certain commodities that are necessary for our products, such as sugar cane, corn, wheat, rice, oats, oranges and other fruits and potatoes. Natural disasters and extreme weather conditions, such as a hurricane, tornado, earthquake, wildfire or flooding, may disrupt the productivity of our facilities or the operation of our supply chain and unfavorably impact the demand for, or our consumers’ ability to purchase, our products.


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Concern over climate change may result in new or increased regional, federal and/or global legal and regulatory requirements to reduce or mitigate the effects of greenhouse gases. In the event that such regulation is more stringent than current regulatory obligations or the measures that we are currently undertaking to monitor and improve our energy efficiency, we may experience disruptions in, or significant increases in our costs of, operation and delivery and be required to make additional investments in facilities and equipment or relocate our facilities. In particular, increasing regulation of fuel emissions can substantially increase the cost of energy, including fuel, required to operate our facilities or transport and distribute our products, thereby substantially increasing the distribution and supply chain costs associated with our products. As a result, the effects of climate change can negatively affect our business and operations
In addition, any failure to achieve our goals with respect to reducing our impact on the environment or perception (whether or not valid) of our failure to act responsibly with respect to the environment or to effectively respond to new, or changes in, legal or regulatory requirements concerning climate change can lead to adverse publicity, resulting in an adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition or results of operations.
There is also increased focus, including by governmental and non-governmental organizations, investors, customers and consumers on these and other environmental sustainability matters, including deforestation, land use, climate impact and recyclability or recoverability of packaging, including plastic. Our reputation can be damaged if we or others in our industry do not act, or are perceived not to act, responsibly with respect to our impact on the environment.
A portion of our workforce is represented by unions. Failure to successfully negotiate collective bargaining agreements, or strikes or work stoppages, can cause our business to suffer.
Many of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements, and other employees may seek to be covered by collective bargaining agreements. Strikes or work stoppages or other business interruptions can occur if we are unable to renew these agreements on satisfactory terms or enter into new agreements on satisfactory terms or if we are unable to otherwise manage changes in, or that affect, our workforce, which can impair manufacturing and distribution of our products or lead to a loss of sales, resulting in an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations. The terms and conditions of existing, renegotiated or new collective bargaining agreements can also increase our costs or otherwise affect our ability to fully implement future operational changes to enhance our efficiency or to adapt to changing business needs or strategy.
If we are not able to adequately protect our intellectual property rights or if we are found to infringe the intellectual property rights of others, the value of our products or brands, or our competitive position, can be reduced, resulting in an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We possess intellectual property rights that are important to our business. These intellectual property rights include ingredient formulas, trademarks, copyrights, patents, business processes and other trade secrets that are important to our business and relate to a variety of our products, their packaging, the processes for their production and the design and operation of various equipment used in our businesses. We protect our intellectual property rights globally through a combination of trademark, copyright, patent and trade secret laws, third-party assignment and nondisclosure agreements and monitoring of third-party misuses of our intellectual property, although the laws of various jurisdictions have differing levels of protection of intellectual property. If we fail to obtain or adequately protect our trademarks, copyrights, patents, business processes and trade secrets, including our ingredient formulas, or if there is a change in law that limits or removes the current legal protections of our intellectual property, the value of our products and brands, or our competitive position, can be reduced, resulting in an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, if, in the course of developing new products or improving the quality of existing products, we are found to have infringed the intellectual property rights of others, directly or indirectly,


30


such finding can have an adverse impact on our business, reputation, financial condition or results of operations and may limit our ability to introduce new products or improve the quality of existing products.
Potential liabilities and costs from litigation, claims, legal or regulatory proceedings, inquiries or investigations can have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We and our subsidiaries are party to a variety of litigation, claims, legal or regulatory proceedings, inquiries and investigations, including but not limited to matters related to our advertising, marketing or commercial practices, product labels, claims and ingredients including sugar, sodium and saturated fat, our intellectual property rights, alleged infringement or misappropriation by us of intellectual property rights of others, environmental, privacy, employment, tax and insurance matters and matters relating to our compliance with applicable laws and regulations. We evaluate such matters to assess the likelihood of unfavorable outcomes and estimate, if possible, the amount of potential losses and establish reserves as appropriate. These matters are inherently uncertain and there is no guarantee that we will be successful in defending ourselves in these matters, or that our assessment of the materiality of these matters and the likely outcome or potential losses and established reserves will be consistent with the ultimate outcome of such matters. In the event that management’s assessment of actual or potential claims and proceedings proves inaccurate or litigation, claims, proceedings, inquiries or investigations that are material arise in the future, there may be a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Responding to litigation, claims, proceedings, inquiries, and investigations, even those that are ultimately non-meritorious, requires us to incur significant expense and devote significant resources, and may generate adverse publicity that damages our reputation or brand image, resulting in an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Many factors can adversely affect the price of our publicly traded securities.
Many factors can adversely affect the price of our common stock and publicly traded debt. Such factors, some of which are beyond our control, have in the past and could continue to include, but are not limited to: unfavorable economic conditions; changes in financial or tax reporting and changes in accounting principles or practices that materially affect our reported financial condition and results; investor perceptions of our business, strategies and performance or those of our competitors; actions by shareholders or others seeking to influence our business strategies; speculation by the media or investment community regarding our business, strategies and performance or those of our competitors; developments relating to pending litigation, claims, inquiries or investigations; changes in laws and regulations applicable to our products or business operations; trading activity in our securities or trading activity in derivative instruments with respect to our securities; changes in our credit ratings; the impact of our share repurchase programs or dividend policy; and the outcome of referenda and elections. In addition, corporate actions, such as those we have or have not taken in the past or may or may not take in the future as part of our continuous review of our corporate structure and our strategy, including as a result of business, legal, regulatory and tax considerations, have not and may not in the future have the impact we intend, resulting in adversely effects on the price of our securities. The above factors, as well as the other risks included in this “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” can adversely affect the price of our securities.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
We have received no written comments regarding our periodic or current reports from the staff of the SEC that were issued 180 days or more preceding the end of our 2019 year and that remain unresolved.


31


Item 2. Properties.
Our principal executive office located in Purchase, New York and our facilities located in Plano, Texas, all of which we own, are our most significant corporate properties.
In connection with making, marketing, distributing and selling our products, each division utilizes manufacturing, processing, bottling and production plants, warehouses, distribution centers, storage facilities, offices, including division headquarters, research and development facilities and other facilities, all of which are either owned or leased.
Significant properties by division are as follows:
FLNA’s research and development facility in Plano, Texas, which is owned.
QFNA’s food plant in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, which is owned.
PBNA’s research and development facility in Valhalla, New York, and a Tropicana plant in Bradenton, Florida, both of which are owned.
LatAm’s three snack plants in Mexico (one in Celaya and two in Vallejo), all of which are owned.
Europe’s snack plant in Kashira, Russia, its dairy plant in Moscow, Russia, and its fruit juice plant in Zeebrugge, Belgium, all of which are owned.
AMESA’s snack plant in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, which is leased.
APAC’s snack plant in Wuhan, China, which is owned.
Our primary concentrate plants in Cork, Ireland and in Singapore, all of which are either owned or leased. Our concentrate plants in Cork, Ireland are shared by our PBNA, Europe and AMESA segments and our concentrate plant in Singapore is shared by our PBNA and APAC segments.
A shared service center in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, which is primarily shared by our FLNA, QFNA and PBNA segments, which is leased.
Most of our plants are owned or leased on a long-term basis. In addition to company-owned or leased properties described above, we also utilize a highly distributed network of plants, warehouses and distribution centers that are owned or leased by our contract manufacturers, co-packers, strategic alliances or joint ventures in which we have an equity interest. We believe that our properties generally are in good operating condition and, taken as a whole, are suitable, adequate and of sufficient capacity for our current operations.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
We and our subsidiaries are party to a variety of litigation, claims, legal or regulatory proceedings, inquiries and investigations. While the results of such litigation, claims, legal or regulatory proceedings, inquiries and investigations cannot be predicted with certainty, management believes that the final outcome of the foregoing will not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. See also “Item 1. Business – Regulatory Matters” and “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable. 
__________________________________________________



32


Information About Our Executive Officers
The following is a list of names, ages and backgrounds of our current executive officers:
Name
Age
Title
Marie T. Gallagher
60
Senior Vice President and Controller, PepsiCo
Hugh F. Johnston
58
Vice Chairman, PepsiCo; Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, PepsiCo
Ramon L. Laguarta
56
Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer, PepsiCo
Silviu Popovici
52
Chief Executive Officer, Europe
Paula Santilli
55
Chief Executive Officer, Latin America
Ronald Schellekens
55
Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer, PepsiCo
Kirk Tanner
51
Chief Executive Officer, PepsiCo Beverages North America
Eugene Willemsen
52
Chief Executive Officer, Africa, Middle East, South Asia
Steven Williams
54
Chief Executive Officer, PepsiCo Foods North America
David Yawman
51
Executive Vice President, Government Affairs, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary, PepsiCo
Marie T. Gallagher was appointed PepsiCo’s Senior Vice President and Controller in 2011. Ms. Gallagher joined PepsiCo in 2005 as Vice President and Assistant Controller. Prior to joining PepsiCo, Ms. Gallagher was Assistant Controller at Altria Corporate Services from 1992 to 2005 and, prior to that, a senior manager at Coopers & Lybrand.
Hugh F. Johnston was appointed Vice Chairman, PepsiCo in 2015 and Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, PepsiCo in 2010. In addition to providing strategic financial leadership for PepsiCo, Mr. Johnston’s portfolio has included a variety of responsibilities, including leadership of the Company’s information technology function since 2015, the Company’s global e-commerce business from 2015 to 2019, and the Quaker Foods North America division from 2014 to 2016. He has also held a number of leadership roles throughout his PepsiCo career, serving as Executive Vice President, Global Operations from 2009 to 2010, President of Pepsi-Cola North America from 2007 to 2009, Executive Vice President, Operations from 2006 to 2007, and Senior Vice President, Transformation from 2005 to 2006. Prior to that, he served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of PepsiCo Beverages and Foods from 2002 through 2005, and as PepsiCo’s Senior Vice President of Mergers and Acquisitions in 2002. Mr. Johnston joined PepsiCo in 1987 as a Business Planner and held various finance positions until 1999 when he left to join Merck & Co., Inc. as Vice President, Retail, a position which he held until he rejoined PepsiCo in 2002. Prior to joining PepsiCo in 1987, Mr. Johnston was with General Electric Company in a variety of finance positions.
Ramon L. Laguarta has served as PepsiCo’s Chief Executive Officer and a director on the Board since October 2018, and assumed the role of Chairman of the Board in February 2019. Mr. Laguarta previously served as President of PepsiCo from 2017 to 2018. Prior to serving as President, Mr. Laguarta held a variety of positions of increasing responsibility in Europe, including as Commercial Vice President of PepsiCo Europe from 2006 to 2008, PepsiCo Eastern Europe Region from 2008 to 2012, President, Developing & Emerging Markets, PepsiCo Europe from 2012 to 2015, Chief Executive Officer, PepsiCo Europe in 2015, and Chief Executive Officer, Europe Sub-Saharan Africa from 2015 until 2017. From 2002 to 2006, he was General Manager for Iberia Snacks and Juices, and from 1999 to 2001 a General Manager for Greece Snacks. Prior to joining PepsiCo in 1996 as a marketing vice president for Spain Snacks, Mr. Laguarta worked for Chupa Chups, S.A., where he worked in several international assignments in Asia, Europe, the Middle East and the United States. Mr. Laguarta has served as a director of Visa Inc. since November 2019.
Silviu Popovici was appointed Chief Executive Officer, Europe, effective August 2019. Prior to this role, he


33


served as Chief Executive Officer, Europe Sub-Saharan Africa from March 2019 to August 2019 and as President, Europe Sub-Saharan Africa from 2017 to March 2019. Mr. Popovici previously served as President, Russia, Ukraine and CIS (The Commonwealth of Independent States) from 2015 to 2017, and as President, PepsiCo Russia from 2013 to 2015. Mr. Popovici joined PepsiCo in 2011 following PepsiCo’s acquisition of Wimm-Bill-Dann Foods OJSC (WBD) and served as General Manager, WBD Foods Division from 2011 until 2012. Prior to the acquisition, Mr. Popovici held senior leadership roles at WBD, running its dairy business from 2008 to 2011 and its beverages business from 2006 to 2008.
Paula Santilli was appointed Chief Executive Officer, Latin America, effective May 2019. Previously, she served in various leadership positions at PepsiCo Mexico Foods, as President from 2017 to 2019, as Chief Operating Officer from 2016 to 2017 and as Vice President and General Manager from 2011 to 2016. Prior to joining PepsiCo Mexico Foods, she held a variety of roles, including leadership positions in Beverages in Mexico, as well as in Foods and Snacks in the Latin America Southern Cone region comprising Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. Ms. Santilli joined PepsiCo in 2001 following PepsiCo’s acquisition of the Quaker Oats Company. At Quaker, she held various roles of increasing responsibility from 1992 to 2001, including running the regional Quaker Foods and Gatorade businesses in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay.
Ronald Schellekens was appointed Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer, PepsiCo, in 2018. Prior to that, Mr. Schellekens served as Group HR Director of Vodafone Group Services Limited from 2009 to 2018, where he was responsible for the Vodafone Human Resource Management function, as well as health and safety, and property and real estate functions. Prior to joining Vodafone, Mr. Schellekens was executive vice president, human resources for the global downstream division of Royal Dutch Shell Plc. Prior to that, he worked for PepsiCo for nine years from 1994 to 2003 in various international, senior human resources roles, including assignments in Switzerland, Spain, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Poland, where he was most recently responsible for the Europe, Middle East & Africa region for PepsiCo Foods International. Prior to that, he served for nine years at AT&T Inc. in Human Resources.
Kirk Tanner was appointed Chief Executive Officer, PepsiCo Beverages North America, effective January 2019. Prior to that, Mr. Tanner served as President and Chief Operating Officer, North America Beverages from 2016 to 2018, Chief Operating Officer, North America Beverages and President, Global Foodservice from 2015 to 2016, and President, Global Foodservice from 2014 to 2015. Mr. Tanner joined PepsiCo in 1992, where he has worked in numerous domestic and international locations and in a variety of roles, including Senior Vice President of Frito-Lay North America’s West region from 2009 to 2013, Vice President, Sales of PepsiCo U.K. and Ireland from 2008 to 2009, Region Vice President of Frito-Lay North America’s Mountain region from 2005 to 2008, Region Vice President of Frito-Lay North America’s Mid-America region from 2002 to 2005 and Region Vice President of Frito-Lay North America’s California region from 2000 to 2002.
Eugene Willemsen was appointed Chief Executive Officer, Africa, Middle East, South Asia, effective October 2019. Previously he served as Chief Executive Officer, Sub-Saharan Africa in 2019 and as Executive Vice President, Global Categories and Franchise Management from 2015 to 2019. Before that, he led the global Pepsi-Lipton Joint Venture as President from 2014 to 2015. Prior to such role, Mr. Willemsen served as PepsiCo’s Senior Vice President and General Manager, South East Europe from 2011 to 2013, as Senior Vice President and General Manager, Commercial, Europe from 2008 to 2011, as Senior Vice President and General Manager, Northern Europe from 2006 to 2008, as Vice President, General Manager, Benelux from 2000 to 2005 and as Commercial Director, Benelux for the snacks business from 1998 to 2000. Mr. Willemsen joined PepsiCo in 1995 as a business development manager.
Steven Williams was appointed Chief Executive Officer, PepsiCo Foods North America, effective April 2019. Prior to this role, Mr. Williams served in leadership positions for Frito-Lay’s U.S. operations, as Senior Vice President, Commercial Sales and Chief Commercial Officer from 2017 to 2019 and as General Manager


34


and Senior Vice President, East Division from 2016 to 2017. Prior to that, he served as General Manager and Senior Vice President, Customer Management for PepsiCo’s global Walmart business from 2013 to 2016, as Sales Senior Vice President, North American Nutrition from 2011 to 2013 and as Vice President, Sales, Central Division from 2009 to 2011. Mr. Williams joined PepsiCo in 2001 as a part of PepsiCo’s acquisition of the Quaker Oats Company, which he joined in 1997 and has held leadership positions of increasing responsibility in sales and customer management.
David Yawman was appointed Executive Vice President, Government Affairs, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary, PepsiCo in 2017. Prior to that, Mr. Yawman served as Senior Vice President and Deputy General Counsel for PepsiCo and General Counsel for North America and Corporate in 2017. He previously served as Senior Vice President, PepsiCo Deputy General Counsel, General Counsel, North America Beverages and Quaker Foods North America from 2015 to 2017, as Senior Vice President, PepsiCo Deputy General Counsel, General Counsel, PepsiCo America Beverages from 2014 to 2015, as Senior Vice President, PepsiCo Chief Compliance and Ethics Officer from 2012 to 2014, and as Senior Vice President, General Counsel, Pepsi Beverages Company from 2010 to 2012. Prior to that, he served five years in the law department of The Pepsi Bottling Group, Inc. (PBG) and, prior to that, was a member of PepsiCo’s corporate law department from the time he joined PepsiCo in 1998 until 2003.
Executive officers are elected by our Board of Directors, and their terms of office continue until the next annual meeting of the Board or until their successors are elected and have qualified. There are no family relationships among our executive officers.



35


PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Stock Trading Symbol – PEP
Stock Exchange Listings – The Nasdaq Global Select Market is the principal market for our common stock, which is also listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange.
Shareholders – As of February 6, 2020, there were approximately 109,312 shareholders of record of our common stock.
Dividends – We have paid consecutive quarterly cash dividends since 1965. The declaration and payment of future dividends are at the discretion of the Board of Directors. Dividends are usually declared in February, May, July and November and paid at the end of March, June and September and the beginning of January. On February 10, 2020, the Board of Directors declared a quarterly dividend of $0.955 payable March 31, 2020, to shareholders of record on March 6, 2020. For the remainder of 2020, the record dates for these dividend payments are expected to be June 5, September 4 and December 4, 2020, subject to approval of the Board of Directors. On February 13, 2020, we announced a 7% increase in our annualized dividend to $4.09 per share from $3.82 per share, effective with the dividend expected to be paid in June 2020. We expect to return a total of approximately $7.5 billion to shareholders in 2020 through share repurchases of approximately $2 billion and dividends of approximately $5.5 billion.
For information on securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans, see “Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.”
A summary of our common stock repurchases (in millions, except average price per share) during the fourth quarter of 2019 is set forth in the table below.
Issuer Purchases of Common Stock
Period
Total
Number of
Shares
Repurchased(a)
 
Average
Price Paid
Per Share
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
 
Maximum Number (or Approximate Dollar Value) of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
9/7/2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
11,783

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9/8/2019 - 10/5/2019
1.5

 
$
135.74

 
1.5

 
(204
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11,579

10/6/2019 - 11/2/2019
1.3

 
$
136.76

 
1.3

 
(170
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11,409

11/3/2019 - 11/30/2019
1.5

 
$
133.90

 
1.5

 
(202
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11,207

12/1/2019 - 12/28/2019
0.9

 
$
136.52

 
0.9

 
(123
)
Total
5.2

 
$
135.58

 
5.2

 
$
11,084

(a)
All shares were repurchased in open market transactions pursuant to the $15 billion repurchase program authorized by our Board of Directors and publicly announced on February 13, 2018, which commenced on July 1, 2018 and will expire on June 30, 2021. Shares repurchased under this program may be repurchased in open market transactions, in privately negotiated transactions, in accelerated stock repurchase transactions or otherwise.


36


Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
Five-Year Summary
(unaudited, in millions except per share amounts) 
The following selected financial data should be read in conjunction with “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes thereto. Our fiscal year ends on the last Saturday of each December and our fiscal year 2016 comprised fifty-three reporting weeks while all other fiscal years presented in the tables below comprised fifty-two reporting weeks.
 
2019

 
2018

 
2017

 
2016

 
2015

Net revenue (a)
$
67,161

 
$
64,661

 
$
63,525

 
$
62,799

 
$
63,056

Operating profit
$
10,291

 
$
10,110

 
$
10,276

 
$
9,804

 
$
8,274

Provision for/(benefit from) income taxes (b)
$
1,959

 
$
(3,370
)
 
$
4,694

 
$
2,174

 
$
1,941

Net income attributable to PepsiCo (b)
$
7,314

 
$
12,515

 
$
4,857

 
$
6,329

 
$
5,452

Net income attributable to PepsiCo per common share – basic (b)
$
5.23

 
$
8.84

 
$
3.40

 
$
4.39

 
$
3.71

Net income attributable to PepsiCo per common share – diluted (b)
$
5.20

 
$
8.78

 
$
3.38

 
$
4.36

 
$
3.67

Cash dividends declared per common share
$
3.7925

 
$
3.5875

 
$
3.1675

 
$
2.96

 
$
2.7625

Total assets (c)
$
78,547

 
$
77,648

 
$
79,804

 
$
73,490

 
$
68,976

Long-term debt obligations
$
29,148

 
$
28,295

 
$
33,796

 
$
30,053

 
$
29,213

(a)
Our 2016 results included an extra week of results (53rd reporting week). The 53rd reporting week increased 2016 net revenue by $657 million, including $294 million in our FLNA segment, $43 million in our QFNA segment, $300 million in our PBNA segment and $20 million in our Europe segment.
(b)
Our 2019, 2018 and 2017 results included the impact of the TCJ Act. Additionally, our 2018 results included other net tax benefits related to the reorganization of our international operations. See Note 5 to our consolidated financial statements for further information.
(c)
During the first quarter of 2019, we prospectively adopted the guidance requiring lessees to recognize most leases on the balance sheet. See Note 2 and Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements for further information.
The following information highlights certain items that impacted our results of operations and financial condition for the five years presented above:
 
2019
 
Operating profit
 
Other pension and retiree medical benefits expense
 
(Provision for)/benefit from income taxes(d)
 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
 
Net income attributable to PepsiCo
 
Net income attributable to PepsiCo per common share – diluted
Mark-to-market net impact (e)
$
112

 
$

 
$
(25
)
 
$

 
$
87

 
$
0.06

Restructuring and impairment charges (f)
$
(368
)
 
$
(2
)
 
$
67

 
$
5

 
$
(298
)
 
$
(0.21
)
Inventory fair value adjustments and merger and integration charges (g)
$
(55
)
 
$

 
$
8

 
$

 
$
(47
)
 
$
(0.03
)
Pension-related settlement charges (h)
$

 
$
(273
)
 
$
62

 
$

 
$
(211
)
 
$
(0.15
)
Net tax related to the TCJ Act (i)
$

 
$

 
$
8

 
$

 
$
8

 
$
0.01

Gains on sales of assets (j)
$
77

 
$

 
$
(19
)
 
$

 
$
58

 
$
0.04



37


 
2018
 
Operating profit
 
Other pension and retiree medical benefits income
 
Interest expense
 
Benefit from/(provision for) income taxes(d)
 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
 
Net income attributable to PepsiCo
 
Net income attributable to PepsiCo per common share – diluted
Mark-to-market net impact (e)
$
(163
)
 
$

 
$

 
$
38

 
$

 
$
(125
)
 
$
(0.09
)
Restructuring and impairment charges (f)
$
(272
)
 
$
(36
)
 
$

 
$
56

 
$
1

 
$
(251
)
 
$
(0.18
)
Merger and integration charges (g)
$
(75
)
 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
(75
)
 
$
(0.05
)
Net tax related to the TCJ Act (i)
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
28

 
$

 
$
28

 
$
0.02

Other net tax benefits (k)
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
5,064

 
$

 
$
5,064

 
$
3.55

Charges related to cash tender and exchange offers (l)
$

 
$

 
$
(253
)
 
$
62

 
$

 
$
(191
)
 
$
(0.13
)
Tax reform bonus (m)
$
(87
)
 
$

 
$

 
$
21

 
$

 
$
(66
)
 
$
(0.05
)
Gains on beverage refranchising (n)
$
202

 
$

 
$

 
$
(30
)
 
$

 
$
172

 
$
0.12

Gains on sale of assets (j)
$
76

 
$

 
$

 
$
(19
)
 
$

 
$
57

 
$
0.04

 
2017
 
Operating profit
 
Other pension and retiree medical benefits income
 
(Provision for)/benefit from income taxes(d)
 
Net income attributable to PepsiCo
 
Net income attributable to PepsiCo per common share – diluted
Mark-to-market net impact (e)
$
15

 
$

 
$
(7
)
 
$
8

 
$
0.01

Restructuring and impairment charges (f)
$
(229
)
 
$
(66
)
 
$
71

 
$
(224
)
 
$
(0.16
)
Provisional net tax related to the TCJ Act (i)
$

 
$

 
$
(2,451
)
 
$
(2,451
)
 
$
(1.70
)
Gain on sale of Britvic plc (Britvic) securities (o)
$
95

 
$

 
$
(10
)
 
$
85

 
$
0.06

Gain on beverage refranchising (n)
$
140

 
$

 
$
(33
)
 
$
107

 
$
0.07

Gain on sale of assets (j)
$
87

 
$

 
$
(25
)
 
$
62

 
$
0.04

 
2016
 
Operating profit
 
Other pension and retiree medical benefits expense
 
Interest expense
 
(Provision for)/benefit from income taxes(d)
 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
 
Net income attributable to PepsiCo
 
Net income attributable to PepsiCo per common share – diluted
Mark-to-market net impact (e)
$
167

 
$

 
$

 
$
(56
)
 
$

 
$
111

 
$
0.08

Restructuring and impairment charges (f)
$
(155
)
 
$
(5
)
 
$

 
$
26

 
$
3

 
$
(131
)
 
$
(0.09
)
Charge related to the transaction with Tingyi (p)
$
(373
)
 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
(373
)
 
$
(0.26
)
Charge related to debt
redemption (l)
$

 
$

 
$
(233
)
 
$
77

 
$

 
$
(156
)
 
$
(0.11
)
Pension-related settlement charge (h)
$

 
$
(242
)
 
$

 
$
80

 
$

 
$
(162
)
 
$
(0.11
)
53rd reporting week (q)
$
126

 
$

 
$
(19
)
 
$
(44
)
 
$
(1
)
 
$